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Advantages of focusing on actions) behaviors as presenting problems (2)
-clients presenting problems often focus on behaviors and not likely on dysfunctional thoughts
-behaviors are concrete therefore they are easier to see a problem with a certain type of behavior.
Advantages of focusing on actions) the accessibility of behaviors (2)
-They are more accessible that either thoughts or emotions
-easier to remember actions than to remember how one felt during a certain time frame
Advantages of focusing on actions) comfort in discussion of behaviors (2)
-discussion of people's behaviors is likely to be less threatening than discussion of their early childhood experiences of their troubling emotions and their private thoughts.
-people feel more comfortable speaking about their behavior than their private experiences or thoughts
Advantages of focusing on actions) accuracy of information
Having discussions regarding behaviors is more common therefore people tend to not lie about their behaviors and they would with their thoughts or emotions
Advantages of focusing on actions) ease of measurement
- Actions are amenable to measurement because they are easy to observe.
- *ex) we can create a baseline for the frequency that the client performs a behavior and from there compare his progression or regression from the baseline.
Advantages of focusing on actions) availability of behavior change strategies
There are a broad range of behavior strategies that have been created over time therefore there are many to choose from.
Advantages of focusing on actions) extensive research support
- Because the impact of behavior change strategies usually is easy to assess and because most behaviorally oriented clinicians are favorably disposed toward empirical research.
- *behaviors are easy to measure therefore a lot of the behavioral strategies have been under testing to test the efficacy of them.
Limitations of focusing on actions) limited focus
An exclusive focus on actions can lead clinicians and clients to ignore thoughts and feelings that need attention and are important in solidifying change.
Planning and implementing behavior change) Step 1: describing the behavior
Describe the target behavior in specific and measurable terms
Planning and implementing behavior change) step 2: establish a baseline
- Establishing a baseline to compare the process to it.
- *this is important in order to see if the client is progressing or regressing.
Planning and implementing behavior change) step 3: determining goals
- Create a realistic goal to attack the behavioral change
- *they should be clear, specific, measurable, and achievable
Planning and implementing behavior change) step 4: developing strategies
- Identify strategies that will help the client achieve their goals.
- * example: a type of reinforcement
Planning and implementing behavior change) step 5: implementation
Once goals and strategies are determined, the plans for behavior change are implemented. Client's should keep a record of their progress.
Planning and implementing behavior change) step 6: Assessment
Assess the process every now and then to see that the strategy and plan in motion is effective. If not then adjust the game plan.
Planning and implementing behavior change) step 7: reinforcement
Know when to reward to reinforce the behavior change
Planning and implementing behavior change) stop 8: continuing the process (3)
-if the plan has shortcoming, then adjust the game plan
-if the plan was successful but the client has additional goals or wants to build on the accomplishment of the initial plan, client and clinician can agree on new objectives and develop strategies that will facilitate those new changes.
-if clients were successful and satisfies with what they are doing now, then they can keep working with the client to solidify their teachings
4 types of reinforcements) Fixed interval reinforcement
- Occurs on a regular schedule
- *such as a weekly pay check or quarterly report card
4 types of reinforcements) variable-interval reinforcement
- Occurs at irregular intervals that average out to a specified time
- *pet receives 5 treats in 75 minutes averaging a treat every 15 minutes but the interval between each treat may be 5 to 30 minutes so its not always 15 minutes.
4 types of reinforcements) fixed-ratio reinforcement
- Are provided at a specified rate that depends on the number of responses made
- *people working on an assembly line may be paid for the parts that they have assembled as opposed to hourly
4 types of reinforcements) variable ratio reinforcement
- Usually seen random and unpredictable to the recipient although they are controlled or planned by the provider
- *winning at slot machines. Slot machine are designed to win every now and then to keep the client wanting to keep playing
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