Fern Extras

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  1. What is the general heteropsporous life cycle
    sporophyte (2n)---> megasporangia and microsporangia--> see below

    megasporangia: produce megaspores--> megagametotophyte-->egg-->

    microsporangia: produce--> microspores--> sperm

    Fertilizatoin of sperm and egg--> 2n zygote-->mitosis--> embryo 2n--> mitosis--> sporophyte (2n)
  2. What is a spore-producing leaf called?
  3. What is sporophyll sterilization
    a portion of the spores is sterile
  4. What is a simple leaf?
    a leaf where the blade is not compounded
  5. What is compounded?
    when the blade is divided into smaller parts (each piece has to extend to the midrib)
  6. Explain the compounding parts.
    once compounded: the parts are pinna (the pinna goes down to the midrib to be once compounded)

    twice compounded: sometimes, each pinna can be further divided into pinnules

    thrice compounded: the pinnules are divided into more pinnules
  7. What can all pinnae do?

    On any leaf, the expanded portion is __.
    produce spores 

  8. What do young leaves on ferns do?
    all curl up: called fiddleheads
  9. Explain the rhizomes.
    tend to be underground and may be at the surface (comparable to stems)
  10. When the spores are mature, what happens?

    The sporangia are then __. Each sporangium has a specialized layer of cells called the __. The annulus consists of __. The function of the annulus is to __.
    the protective layer that covers the sporangia dries up and folds back or falls off of the leaf

    fully exposed to the air


    cells that have very thick cell walls and it occurs as a band of cells

    throw the spores out of the sporangium and into the air
  11. There are four pictures on your worksheet about the annulus that show the process. Explain it.
    A. Mature, closed sporangiu

    B. Tearing of the lip cells begins sporangial dehiscence (spontaneous opening)

    C. Annulus is flung back, ejecting some of the spores

    D. Snapping back of the annulus ejects most/ all of the remaining spores
  12. Life cycle of a homosporous fern
    spore --> protonema--> gametophyte prothallus (with archegonia and antheridia and rhizoids) --> production of egg and sperm--> fertilization--> zygote--> young sporophyte--> sporophyte: sporophyll with fronds and fiddleheads and sori on the back of fronds covered  by an indusium and containing a young sporangium--> sporangium forms with two layered tapetum and a sporocyte--> meiosis occurs inside the sporangium to produce spores--> the annulus openes up and releases the spores--> spores
  13. Marsilia is a __.
    heterosporous fern
  14. Life cycle of marsilea?
    2n sporophyte--> sorophore (ring) containing sori, which have sporangia as microsporangia and megasporangia--> megasporangium + microsporangium--> megaspore+ microspore-->growth of the mega adn microscpore--> megagametophyte (has archegonium) + microgametophyte, which has antheridium and produces sperm cell--> fertilization--> embryo--> sporophyte
  15. What does a megagametophyte have?
    • megaspore wall
    • egg 
    • ventral canal cell
    • neck canal cell
    • neck cells
    • archegonium
  16. What does the microspore and microgametophyte have?
    microspore: microspore wall and prothallial cell

    microgametophyte: spermatocytes and antheridium
  17. What does the gametophyte prothallus of a homosporous fern have?
    archegonia and antheridia and rhizoids
  18. What does the antheridia and archegonia of a gametophyte prothallus of a homosporous fern have?
    antheridia: sperms and sterile jacket

    archegonia: egg, venter, neck canal, neck
Card Set:
Fern Extras
2014-04-08 18:21:09
Plant Kingdom
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