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What is pulse and how can it be measured?
- A measurement of the heart rate;
- Can be measured on any large or medium artery by using fingertip to compress the vessel and sense the pulse
Where can the pulse be located?
- Carotid artery - neck;
- Brachial artery - inner, upper arm
- Radial artery - wrist
What are other terms for the carotid artery?
- When it runs along the trachea as common carotid;
- Appoximately level with the mandible, bifurcates to the External and internal carotid arteries
Describe the location of the brachial artery.
- Runs along medial side of upper arm between biceps brachii and triceps bracii to point just distal of elbow joint;
- Can be located in the groove between the biceps and triceps (antecubital space)
Describe the location of the radial artery
- Divides bracial artery and continues distally along the forearm on the radial side;
- Located at the distal lateral wrist immediately superior to the thumb
What does systemic arterial blood pressure measure?
- Hemodynamic factors (cardiac output, peripheral vascular resistance, blood flow);
- Indirect measurement of pressure inside artery caused by force exerted against the vessel wall
How is systemic arterial blood pressure measured?
- Measured in the arm over the brachial artery using a sphygmomanometer and a stethocope;
- Arterial reference indicator on the cuff is placed over brachial artery.
- Bottom of cuff is located approximately 1" above antecubital space, and stethoscope is positioned in the medial antecubital space
Why is skinfold measurement done during assessment?
Estimating body fat percentage
What are locations on the body used for skinfold testing?
- Triceps brachii;
- Biceps brachii;
What is the purpose of circumference/girth measurements and how are they measured?
- Assesses the circumferential dimensions of various parts of the body;
- Provides indication of growth, nutritional status, and fat patterning;
- Determined using a tape measurer
What are common circumference measurement sites?
- Abdomen - level with belly-button;
- Waist - narrowest part of the torso;
- Hip - maximal circumference point of hips/buttocks;
- Thigh - Maximal circumference point of thigh;
- Calf - maximal circumference point of calf
- Arm - midway between acromion and olecranon process;
- Forearm - maximal forearm circumference
What is the purpose of body width measurements and how is it measured?
- Provide information for determining frame size and body type;
- Can be used to estimate desireable weight based on stature;
- Measured using spreadying calipers, sliding calipers, or an anthropometer
What are the common sites for body width measurement?
Describe the components of the Standard (Mason-Liker) 12 lead Electrocardiography (ECG) system?
10 Electrodes - 4 limb electrodes, 6 precordial electrodes
Where are the 4 limb electrodes of an ECG placed on the body?
- Right Arm (RA), Left Arm (LA) - positioned just inferior to distal end of right and left clavicle;
- Right Leg (RL), Left Leg (LL) - positioned just superior to iliac crest along midclavicular line
Where are the 6 Precordial electrodes of the ECG placed on the body?
- V1 and V2 - Fourth intercostal space on right and left sternal border, respectively;
- V4 - Midclavicular lind at fifth intercostal space
- V3 - Midpoint between V2 and V4;
- V5 and V6 - anterior axillary line and midaxillary line, respectively
Describe potential bipolar electrode placement for the ECG on the body.
- Can be place in various locations;
- Could be placed on manubrium, right 5th intercostal space, or standard electrode placements of RA, RL, LL, V5
Where is the upper and lower electrodes for defibrillations placed?
- Upper - Just inferor to clavicle and to the right of the sternum;
- Lower - Midaxillary line just lateral to left nipple