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Why did behavioral approach present a powerful challenge against psychoanalytic perspective?
Behavioral approach focused on actions instead of the unconscious. They focused on the present instead of the past
4 areas of development) which 2 researchers fell in line with classical conditioning?
Ivan Pavlov and john watson
4 areas of development) classical conditioning: what type of work did Pavlov do?
He brought us the conditioned stimulus/response and extinction ideas.
*conditioned stimulus was a stimulus that did not have an effect on the dogs till they were conditioned to think they were associated with an unconditioned stimulus. Extinction was an idea that explained how the dog can dissociate the unconditioned stimulus with the conditioned stimulus
4 areas of development) classical conditioning: John watson
- Stimulus generalization
- * Watson demonstrated that an unconditioned stimulus (loud bell) paired with a conditioned stimulus ( white rat) could lead a child to omit a conditioned response (startle) in reaction not only to the white rat but also cotton and Watson's white hair.
4 areas of development) which 3 researchers are under operatn conditioning
-Dollard & Miller
4 areas of development) Operant conditioning: BF skinner
Skinners brought concepts on positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and negative stimulus
4 areas of development) Operant conditioning: BF skinners- Positive reinfrocement
- A behavior followed by a positive reinforcement has an increased probability of being repeated
- *encourages the behavior to be repeated
4 areas of development) Operant conditioning: BF skinners- Negative stimulus
The opposite of positive reinforcement, an aversive stimulus is something that might be found to be unpleasant such as shocking a mouse to prevent the behavior from repeating
4 areas of development) Operant conditioning: BF skinners- Negative reinforcement
- Involves the removal of an already active aversive stimulus
- *turning off the electricity when the mouse stands on its hind legs will result in the mouse standing more. This increases the probability that the behavior will occur in the future again
4 areas of development) Operant conditioning: Dollard &Miller
Brought the counterconditioning
4 areas of development) Operant conditioning: Dollard & Miller- Counter conditioning
Reverses the conditioning by pairing the behavior to be changed with a strong incompatible response to the same cue.
*Jamila saw that when she fell ill, she would attract more attention. Therefore she always became ill to seek attention. Counter conditioning occurred when she saw that her employer and friends were getting annoyed with her and her illnesses. So her behavior started to change.
4 areas of development) social learning, who was the most famous researcher in social learning approach?
- Albert bandura
- *his research with boob dolls
4 areas of development) social learning approach: Albert Bandura-
Learning and changing behavior can occur by observation of other people's behaviors
4 areas of development) social learning approach: Albert bandura
- Not only do others influence our behavior but we also influence our environment.
- *reciprocal influence
4 areas of development) social learning approach: Albert bandura
Observing someone we admire undertake a challenging task can reduce our fears and facilitate our own efforts to perform the task.
4 areas of development) cognitive-behavioral therapy
Thoughts/cognitions impacts feelings and behaviors
7 basic characteristics of behavior therapy
-based on scientific method
-behavior isn't just observable
-focus on the now
-clients play an active role
-change can occur without insight
-assessment ongoing process
-treatment is individually tailored
What does the ABC's stand for in ABC model
-beliefs about the event
ABC model) Activating event (2)
-the actual event
-client's immediate interpretations of the event
*Mary is walking down the road, and her friend Sarah walks right by her
ABC model) Beliefs about the event
- This evaluation can be rational or irrational
- * Mary thinks oh Sarah is a jerk or
- Mary think Sarah was distracted
ABC model) Consequences
- How you feel and what you do or thoughts
- *next time Mary ignores Sarah or Mary calls out Sarah and Sarah apologizes. They go out to for lunch
Planning and implementing behavior change (8_)
-establish a baseline
-continuing the process
Behavioral strategies and interventions) classical conditioning (3)
Behavioral strategies and interventions) which 6 strategies and interventions apply to Operant conditioning?
-reasonable and natural consequences
Behavioral strategies and interventions) which 3 interventions and strategies can be applied to social learning?
Behavioral strategies and interventions) which 4 strategies and interventions can be applied to self management?
-expressive and creative activities
Behavioral strategies and interventions) acting as if
- - when confronting a challenging situation, people act as if they are someone whom they view as capable of angling the situation effectively
- *children cope more when they pretend they are their own favorite superhero
Behavioral strategies and interventions) activity scheduling
- Planning activities that are rewarding and provide a sense of accomplishment can help people in many ways
- *provides focus and direction
Behavioral strategies and interventions) aversion therapy
-sometime linking undesirable behaviors with negative experiences motivates change
Behavioral strategies and interventions) behavioral rehearsal
Gives the client to practice a challenging task by role playing with someone
Behavioral strategies and interventions) biofeedback
Involves the use of instruments that monitor bodily functions such as heart rate, sweat gland activity, skin temp, etch.
Behavioral strategies and interventions) contracting
A way of establishing a clear agreement between the client and the clinician about the goals of treatment and the roles of both participants
Behavioral strategies and interventions) diaphragmatic breathing
Strategy involves taking deep, slow breaths and focusing on breathing to calm down or induce sleep
Behavioral strategies and interventions) expressive and creative activities (2)
-Expressive techniques can be successful with people that are not verbally expressive.
-it can help people become more aware of their emotions
Behavioral strategies and interventions) extinction
Extinction involves withdrawing the payoff of an undesirable behavior in hopes of reducing or eliminating it
Behavioral strategies and interventions) flooding
- People are exposed to high doses of a feared stimulus in the expectation that this will desensitized them to a feared stimulus
- *putting somebody in a room filled with balloons
Behavioral strategies and interventions) modeling
- Clients can observe other people that are successful in overcoming their phobias or fears.
- *public speaking, client can model the way a highly competent speaker acts on stage or in front of a group and model themselves after that
Behavioral strategies and interventions) reasonable natural consequences
- These are reasonable consequences that are logical but may be unpleasant outcomes of undesirable behavior
- *person keeps coming late to work, then he'll get fired
Behavioral strategies and interventions) reinforcements
- Reinforcement and rewards are there to encourage behavior change, enhance learning, and solidify gains
- *these should be carefully selected
Behavioral strategies and interventions) relaxation
Techniques that teach a person how to relax, these are usually combined with other strategies
Behavioral strategies and interventions) shaping
- technique is used to effect a gradual change in behaviors
- *they make successive actions to eventually acquire the new behavior
Behavioral strategies and interventions) skill training
technique to teach people the skills that they need to effect that change
Behavioral strategies and interventions) systematic desensitization
technique useful in reducing fears, phobias, obsessions and compulsions, and anxiety because it gradually exposes the client to the feared situation or object
Behavioral strategies and interventions) token economies (4)
-behavioral rules or guideline first must be established and understood by all participants
-system of rapidly identifying and recording each person's performance of the desired behaviors is developed
-each time they perform the desired behavior, they should be rewarded with a star or points. They then can trade their points or stars for certain things such as TV time, gift card etch.
Social skills training (3)
-used for a variety of problems
-anger management training
- -assertion training
- *does not mean aggression