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What is biotechnology?
The technical application of biological knowledge for human purposes
What is Recombinant DNA technology?
Applied science that explores applications of cutting, splicing, and creating DNA
What is genetic engineering?
Manipulation of the genetic makeup of cells or whole organisms
What do primers do?
they enable initiation of DNA synthesis
Prior to sequencing, DNA must be amplified to get adequate amount
What are the nucleotides in DNA?
What is DNA polymerase?
Replicates the DNA
What is gel electrophoresis?
It separates DNA strands by size
WHat is recombinant DNA?
cutting, splicing, and copying DNA
What are the 3 tools for manipulating DNA?
1. Restriction enzymes- they cut the DNA at specific sites
2. DNA ligases- join fragments of DNA
3. Plasmids- Small circular pieces of DNA to which desired genes can be added and inserted into bacteria for amplification
What are restriction enzymes?
They cut DNA at specific sites
What are DNA ligases?
Join fragments of DNA
What are plasmids?
Small circular pieces of DNA to which desired genes can be added and inserted into bacteria for amplification
What can the Polymerase chain reaction be used for?
Can be used to rapidly amplify DNA sequences to obtain millions of copies
What are the 2 things the Polymerase chain reaction does?
1. DNA is amplified, primers, heat-stable DNA polymerase are combined
2. Repeated heating and cooling cycles allow for rapid amplification of a sequence of DNA defined by the primers
What are the 4
steps of DNA fingerprinting?
1. Often DNA sample must be amplified by PCR first
2. DNA is cut with restriction enzymes
3. Different individuals will have different lengths of DNA between the restriction sites
4. DNA is separated by gel electrophoresis and fragment pattern is compared
What has transgenic bacteria have been developed to produce? (6 things)
2. Human growth hormone
4. Tissue plasminogen activator (TPA)
5. Factor VIII (blood clotting factor needed by many hemophiliacs)
What has transgenic plants been modified to express? (6 things)
1. Increased resistance to freezing
2. Longer shelf life
3. Increased vitamin A
4. Edible vaccines
5. Human proteins
6. Increased resistance to pests
What are the 2 concerns involving transgenic plants?
2. Plant disease susceptibility could lead to crop failure
What are the 2 biggest challenges concerning transgenic animals?
1. More difficult to introduce foreign DNA into animal cells
2. Cloning more difficult
What are the 2 successes concerning transgenic animals?
1. Bovine growth hormone (BGH)- used to promote faster animal growth
2. "Gene pharming"- introducing human genes into dairy animals in such a way that the human protein is produced in the animal's milk
What is gene therapy?
Introduction of human genes into human cells to treat or correct a disease
What are the 3 obstacles concerning gene therapy?
1. Difficult to introduce genes into the "right" cells where the genes would normally be expressed
2. Need effective means of delivering genes
3. Can corrective genes be introduced into reproductive cells to stop the passing of defective genes to offspring
What are retroviruses?
Human genes can be packaged in retroviruses, which can introduce genes into human cells
What vectors transfer genes to human cells?
3. Injecting naked DNA
What is severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)?
Some success with gene therapy
What has it done for cancer research?
1. Introduce gene for interleukins to stimulate the immune system
2. Introduce gene for mda 7- a protein that initiates apoptosis