Articulation and Phonology Chapter 5 & 6

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Articulation and Phonology Chapter 5 & 6
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2014-04-08 23:22:28
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Articulation Phonology Chapter
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Articulation and Phonology Chapter 5 & 6
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  1. all vocalizations prior to first words
    Prelinguistic behavior
  2. acquisition of speech sound form and function within the  language
    Phonological development
  3. gradual articulatory mastery of speech sounds within a given language (measurable)
    Speech sound development
  4. is the tendency to hear speech sounds 'merely' as members of a phonemic category - the category of 'z' sounds, or the category of 'p' sounds, etc
    Categorical perception
  5. ability to identify same sound with different speakers and in changing environments
    Perceptual constancy
  6. Knowing the differences between phonemes that signal word meaning differences.

    Association of minimal pairs to signal word meaning differences found to occur at different times
    Perception of phonemic contrasts
  7. Prelinguistic stages:
    • Reflexive crying 0-2 months
    • Vegetative sounds 0-2 months
    • Cooing and laughter 2-4 months
    • Vocal Play 4-6 months
    • Canonical babbling 6+ months
    • Jargon 10+ months
    • First word 1 year
  8. Sounds of discomfort (cries, coughs, grunts, and burps reflecting physical state of the infant)
    Reflexive crying
  9. Sounds of discomfort

    Associated with feeding
    Vegetative sounds
  10. Sounds of comfort
    Cooing and laughter
  11. manipulating pitch (to produce "squeals" and "growls"), loudness (producing "yells"), and also manipulating tract closures to produce friction noises, nasal murmurs, "raspberries" and "snorts"
    Vocal Play
  12. similar strings of sounds (same consonant, different vowel
    Reduplicated babbling
  13. (nonreduplicated babbling) - consonants and vowels
    Variegated Babbling
  14. extended sounds that are chopped up rhythmically by oral articulations into syllable-like sequences, opening and closing their jaws, lips and tongue. The range of sounds produced are heard as stop-like and glide-like. Fricatives, affricates and liquids are more rarely heard, and clusters are even rarer. Vowels tend to be low and open, at least in the beginning

    Prosody begins to appear
    Babbling
  15. strings of babbled utterances
    Babbling
  16. elements that occur across segments that are used to influence what we say
    –is the rhythm, stress, and intonation
    –may reflect various features of the speaker or the utterance: the emotional state of the speaker; the form of the utterance (statement, question, or command); the presence of irony or sarcasm; emphasis, contrast, and focus; or other elements of language that may not be encoded by grammar or choice of vocabulary (this is through adulthood)
    Prosodic features
  17. occurs around the end of the first year beginning with the first meaningful word.
    linguistic phase
  18. vocalizations used consistently by child in a certain context without an recognizable adult model

    invented words
    Proto-words/vocables/quasi-words/phonetically consistent forms
  19. Contrastive words (not phonemes) are acquired. In other words, children are not just learning sounds, which are then used to make up words, but rather, they seem to learn word units that happen to contain particular sets of sounds.
    Presystemic phase
  20. acquiring word forms in unanalyzed units as whole words
    Item learning stage
  21. acquiring the phonological principals of the system
    system learning stage
  22. the child uses one word to indicate a whole idea
    Holophrastic period
  23. The pattern of leaving out most grammatical/functional morphemes
    Telegraphic
  24. unstable pronunciation of the child’s first words
    Phonetic variability
  25. usually CV, VC, CVC, but there can be other combinations as well
    Limitation of syllable structures and segmental productions used
  26. children will acquire words that contain sounds within their phonological inventories
    Salience factor
  27. children will avoid words that contain sounds not in their inventory
    Avoidance factor
  28. is the most important aspect of communication during this stage because it indicates
    Prosodic variation
  29. insertion of sound segment into the word (paleez for please) which simplifies the more difficult construction  (note-sometimes seen with stuttering before a “feared” word)
    Epenthesis
  30. Name the 3 phonological processes classifications
    • Syllable structure process
    • Substitution process
    • Assimilation process
  31. replacement of stops for fricatives and affricates
    Stopping
  32. replace palatals and velars with alveolar consonants (/sh→s/ /tsh→ts/  palatal fronting) and / k→t/ velar fronting
    fronting
  33. changes in which a sound becomes similar to, or is influenced by, a neighboring sound of an utterance
    Assimilation Process
  34. Name the subdivisions for Syllable structure process
    • Reduplication
    • Final consonant deletion
    • Cluster Reduction
    • Unstressed/weak syllable deletion
    • Epenthesis
  35. Name the subdivisions for Substitution Process
    • Stopping
    • Fronting
    • Gliding
  36. Name the subdivisions for Assimilation Process
    • Velar harmony
    • Regressive Assimilation
  37. /bawp for stop/ /babu for table/ includes sounds other than velars
    Regressive Assimilation
  38. one syllable within the 2 word phrase becomes more prominent or stressed
    Contrastive stress
  39. without the pause between 2 words and with one intonational contour) where the pause between words, one is louder and conveys meaning

    what is often called a sense group, is an organizational unit imposed on prosodic data
    Tone unit
  40. alternating from L1 and L2
    Code switching/code mixing
  41. L2 develops higher skills with L1 not being taught/learned at higher level
    Language Loss/Subtractive Bilingualism
  42. the child’s conscious awareness of the sounds within a language, including how the sounds are combined in the language to form words
    Metamorphology
  43. awareness of the sound structure of phonological structure of a spoken word in contrast to written words
    phonological awareness
  44. is different than phonological awareness—it refers only to the phoneme level      and requires the understanding that words are made up of individual sounds
    Phonemic Awareness
  45. the use of sounds of language to process verbal information in oral or written form that requires working and long-term memory
    Phonological Processing
  46. involves memory skills where they must determine which sound in stored memory is to be used with a new word.
    Coding
  47. occurs in working memory
    phonetic coding
  48. occurs in stored memory and it involves a 3 step process
    phonological coding
  49. Requires understanding that a word can be divided into syllables
    Syllable awareness
  50. Ability to manipulate sounds
    Phonemic awareness
  51. life support of breathing and eating (infants)
    Primary functions
  52. include articulation of speech sounds in addition to life support (with maturity)
    secondary functions
  53. are terms that indicate nonphonemic speech sound productions
    vocoids and contoids
  54. Nonphonemeic vowel-like sound production
    vocoid
  55. Nonphonemic consonantlike sound production
    contoid
  56. an entity of relatively stable phonetic form that is produced consistently by the child in a particular context and is recognizably related to the adultlike word form of a particular language
    First word
  57. Refers to accurate sound productions that are later replaced by inaccurate ones
    Phonological idiom or Regression
  58. from their first language to English
    Interference or transfer
  59. refers to the study of the different allomorphs of the morpheme and the rules governing their use.
    Morphophonology
  60. This awareness involves recognition of the onset of the syllable and the rime, or the rest of the syllable, which includes the syllable peak and coda.
    Onset-Rime Awareness
  61. Why test language?
    It affects grammatical markers

    Avoidance to talk because of articulation problems

    Second language acquisition
  62. What are the pros for using articulation tests?
    easy to administer and score

    results provide a quantifiable list of "incorrect" sound productions in different word positions

    provide standardized scores

    scores could be used to document the client's need for, and progress in, therapy
  63. What are the cons for using an articulation tests?
    examines sound articulation in selected isolated words.

    not enough information about the phonological system because articulation tests are measures of speech sound production.

    do not test all sounds in all the contexts

    examines only a small portion of that child's articulatory behavior
  64. What to consider when selecting an Articulation Assessment?
    Appropriateness for age or developmental level

    Ability to provide standardized score          

    Type of Analysis of the sound errors          -do they assess articulation or phonology?         

    Includes adequate sample of the sound or sounds relevant to each person
  65. What are the Assessment Procedures to Supplement Articulation Tests?
    Transcribe the full word when there is an error

    Supplement the articulation test with additional utterances that address the noted problems of the client: make sure that you test the target sounds in various positions and contexts.

    Always sample and record continuous speech

    Determine the stimulability of the error sounds
  66. What are the 3 error scoring system?
    Two way scoring (it is either right or wrong) CON: Doesn’t provide information on the kind of aberrant articulation happens. It doesn’t tell you what the child does.

    Five-way scoring (SODA) –Con: no examples of what is considered the norm; the category may include the presence not the absence of a sound; substitution and distortion are vague terms. A substitution to you might be a distortion to another SLP

    Phonetic transcription (TIME CONSUMING)
  67. What do we examine in a oral peripheral evaluation?
    Examine the head and facial structure

    Size, shape of lower portion of the skull including the jaw

    The hard and soft palates

    Oral and pharyngeal cavity structures

    The tongue (structure)

    Examine breathing: look for “normal” breathing habits
  68. the clinical evaluation of a client's disorder, can be divided into two phases: appraisal and diagnosis
    assessment
  69. the collection of data
    appraisal
  70. represents the end result of studying and interpreting the data
    diagnosis
  71. consists of activities or tests that identify individuals who merit further evaluation.
    Screening
  72. is a series of activities and tests that allows a more detailed and complete collection of data.
    comprehensive evaluation
  73. refers to testing the client's ability to produce a misarticulated sound in an appropriate manner when "stimulated" by the clinician to do so.
    Stimulability testing
  74. repeating with normal pronounciation what the client has just said for easier identification later.
    Glossing
  75. have been often been used to test the speed of movement of the articulators. /pataka/
    Diadochokinetic rates
  76. is the time span during childhood in which conventional words begin to appear as a means of communication
    emerging phonology
  77. the ability to identify and distinguish between different sounds
    Perceptual testing or auditory discrimination
  78. is the ability to store and recall information which was given verbally.
    Auditory memory
  79. is the ability to remember or reconstruct the order of items in a list or the order of sounds in a word or syllable.
    Auditory sequencing
  80. is the process of putting together phonemes to form words.
    Auditory (sound) blending

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