Articulation and Phonology Chapter 5 & 6
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all vocalizations prior to first words
acquisition of speech sound form and function within the language
gradual articulatory mastery of speech sounds within a given language (measurable)
Speech sound development
is the tendency to hear speech sounds 'merely' as members of a phonemic category - the category of 'z' sounds, or the category of 'p' sounds, etc
ability to identify same sound with different speakers and in changing environments
Knowing the differences between phonemes that signal word meaning differences.
Association of minimal pairs to signal word meaning differences found to occur at different times
Perception of phonemic contrasts
- Reflexive crying 0-2 months
- Vegetative sounds 0-2 months
- Cooing and laughter 2-4 months
- Vocal Play 4-6 months
- Canonical babbling 6+ months
- Jargon 10+ months
- First word 1 year
Sounds of discomfort (cries, coughs, grunts, and burps reflecting physical state of the infant)
Sounds of discomfort
Associated with feeding
Sounds of comfort
Cooing and laughter
manipulating pitch (to produce "squeals" and "growls"), loudness (producing "yells"), and also manipulating tract closures to produce friction noises, nasal murmurs, "raspberries" and "snorts"
similar strings of sounds (same consonant, different vowel
(nonreduplicated babbling) - consonants and vowels
extended sounds that are chopped up rhythmically by oral articulations into syllable-like sequences, opening and closing their jaws, lips and tongue. The range of sounds produced are heard as stop-like and glide-like. Fricatives, affricates and liquids are more rarely heard, and clusters are even rarer. Vowels tend to be low and open, at least in the beginning
Prosody begins to appear
strings of babbled utterances
elements that occur across segments that are used to influence what we say
–is the rhythm, stress, and intonation
–may reflect various features of the speaker or the utterance: the emotional state of the speaker; the form of the utterance (statement, question, or command); the presence of irony or sarcasm; emphasis, contrast, and focus; or other elements of language that may not be encoded by grammar or choice of vocabulary (this is through adulthood)
occurs around the end of the first year beginning with the first meaningful word.
vocalizations used consistently by child in a certain context without an recognizable adult model
Proto-words/vocables/quasi-words/phonetically consistent forms
Contrastive words (not phonemes) are acquired. In other words, children are not just learning sounds, which are then used to make up words, but rather, they seem to learn word units that happen to contain particular sets of sounds.
acquiring word forms in unanalyzed units as whole words
Item learning stage
acquiring the phonological principals of the system
system learning stage
the child uses one word to indicate a whole idea
The pattern of leaving out most grammatical/functional morphemes
unstable pronunciation of the child’s first words
usually CV, VC, CVC, but there can be other combinations as well
Limitation of syllable structures and segmental productions used
children will acquire words that contain sounds within their phonological inventories
children will avoid words that contain sounds not in their inventory
is the most important aspect of communication during this stage because it indicates
insertion of sound segment into the word (paleez for please) which simplifies the more difficult construction (note-sometimes seen with stuttering before a “feared” word)
Name the 3 phonological processes classifications
- Syllable structure process
- Substitution process
- Assimilation process
replacement of stops for fricatives and affricates
replace palatals and velars with alveolar consonants (/sh→s/ /tsh→ts/ palatal fronting) and / k→t/ velar fronting
changes in which a sound becomes similar to, or is influenced by, a neighboring sound of an utterance
Name the subdivisions for Syllable structure process
- Final consonant deletion
- Cluster Reduction
- Unstressed/weak syllable deletion
Name the subdivisions for Substitution Process
Name the subdivisions for Assimilation Process
- Velar harmony
- Regressive Assimilation
/bawp for stop/ /babu for table/ includes sounds other than velars
one syllable within the 2 word phrase becomes more prominent or stressed
without the pause between 2 words and with one intonational contour) where the pause between words, one is louder and conveys meaning
what is often called a sense group, is an organizational unit imposed on prosodic data
alternating from L1 and L2
Code switching/code mixing
L2 develops higher skills with L1 not being taught/learned at higher level
Language Loss/Subtractive Bilingualism
the child’s conscious awareness of the sounds within a language, including how the sounds are combined in the language to form words
awareness of the sound structure of phonological structure of a spoken word in contrast to written words
is different than phonological awareness—it refers only to the phoneme level and requires the understanding that words are made up of individual sounds
the use of sounds of language to process verbal information in oral or written form that requires working and long-term memory
involves memory skills where they must determine which sound in stored memory is to be used with a new word.
occurs in working memory
occurs in stored memory and it involves a 3 step process
Requires understanding that a word can be divided into syllables
Ability to manipulate sounds
life support of breathing and eating (infants)
include articulation of speech sounds in addition to life support (with maturity)
are terms that indicate nonphonemic speech sound productions
vocoids and contoids
Nonphonemeic vowel-like sound production
Nonphonemic consonantlike sound production
an entity of relatively stable phonetic form that is produced consistently by the child in a particular context and is recognizably related to the adultlike word form of a particular language
Refers to accurate sound productions that are later replaced by inaccurate ones
Phonological idiom or Regression
from their first language to English
Interference or transfer
refers to the study of the different allomorphs of the morpheme and the rules governing their use.
This awareness involves recognition of the onset of the syllable and the rime, or the rest of the syllable, which includes the syllable peak and coda.
Why test language?
It affects grammatical markers
Avoidance to talk because of articulation problems
Second language acquisition
What are the pros for using articulation tests?
easy to administer and score
results provide a quantifiable list of "incorrect" sound productions in different word positions
provide standardized scores
scores could be used to document the client's need for, and progress in, therapy
What are the cons for using an articulation tests?
examines sound articulation in selected isolated words.
not enough information about the phonological system because articulation tests are measures of speech sound production.
do not test all sounds in all the contexts
examines only a small portion of that child's articulatory behavior
What to consider when selecting an Articulation Assessment?
Appropriateness for age or developmental level
Ability to provide standardized score
Type of Analysis of the sound errors -do they assess articulation or phonology?
Includes adequate sample of the sound or sounds relevant to each person
What are the Assessment Procedures to Supplement Articulation Tests?
Transcribe the full word when there is an error
Supplement the articulation test with additional utterances that address the noted problems of the client: make sure that you test the target sounds in various positions and contexts.
Always sample and record continuous speech
Determine the stimulability of the error sounds
What are the 3 error scoring system?
Two way scoring (it is either right or wrong) CON: Doesn’t provide information on the kind of aberrant articulation happens. It doesn’t tell you what the child does.
Five-way scoring (SODA) Con: no examples of what is considered the norm; the category may include the presence not the absence of a sound; substitution and distortion are vague terms. A substitution to you might be a distortion to another SLP
Phonetic transcription (TIME CONSUMING)
What do we examine in a oral peripheral evaluation?
Examine the head and facial structure
Size, shape of lower portion of the skull including the jaw
The hard and soft palates
Oral and pharyngeal cavity structures
The tongue (structure)
Examine breathing: look for “normal” breathing habits
the clinical evaluation of a client's disorder, can be divided into two phases: appraisal and diagnosis
the collection of data
represents the end result of studying and interpreting the data
consists of activities or tests that identify individuals who merit further evaluation.
is a series of activities and tests that allows a more detailed and complete collection of data.
refers to testing the client's ability to produce a misarticulated sound in an appropriate manner when "stimulated" by the clinician to do so.
repeating with normal pronounciation what the client has just said for easier identification later.
have been often been used to test the speed of movement of the articulators. /pataka/
is the time span during childhood in which conventional words begin to appear as a means of communication
the ability to identify and distinguish between different sounds
Perceptual testing or auditory discrimination
is the ability to store and recall information which was given verbally.
is the ability to remember or reconstruct the order of items in a list or the order of sounds in a word or syllable.
is the process of putting together phonemes to form words.
Auditory (sound) blending
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