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a close relationship between two or more unrelated organisms:
symbiosis (symbiotic relationship)
when two organisms benefit from each other:
when each species can only live in the presence of the other:
when each species benefits from the presence of the other, but can still survive without the other:
when one species lives in close association with another, and benefits; while the other does not gain benefit but is not harmed:
when one species spends a significant portion of its life cycle in close association with another organism (host) and the host is negatively affected:
when a female lays an egg into the nest of another individual:
avian brood parasitism
the resource and conditions present in an area that produce occupancy:
the way an animal uses the physical and biological resources in a habitat:
a series of innate and learned behavioral decisions made by an animal about what habitat it would use:
What can affect habitat selection:
- angle of sun
- species of vegetation
- height, spacing, and density of vegetation
- predator presence
- availability of lookouts
a consequence of habitat selection, resulting in the disproportional use of some resources over others:
accessibility and attainability of physical and biological components of a habitat by animals:
the ability of the environment to provide conditions appropriate for individual and population persistence:
the unique combinations of vegetation existing in a specific area:
What determines plant communities?
- soil components/particles
- solar radiation
critters supported by the various combinations of plant communities:
area where two communities or successional stages overlap, creating a distinct community:
the mixing of communities or successional stages:
the progressive replacement of one dominant species or community by another in an ecosystem until a stable climax community is established:
the entire sequence of ecological communities successively occupying an area from the initial stage to the climax community
What are the seral stages?
- primary succession
- secondary succession
- climax community
What is a first order selection?
physical or geographical range of a species
What is a second order selection?
home range of an individual or social group within that geographical range
What is a third order selection?
- related to species of how the components of the habitat within the home range are used
- (foraging, bedding, breeding, parturition)
What grasslands grow where?
- shortgrass prairies grow to the west
- mixed prairie grow in the middle
- tallgrass prairies grow to the east