Social Psych 3-4

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Author:
jakeyboo05
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269849
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Social Psych 3-4
Updated:
2014-04-08 21:49:56
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Social Psych
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Chapters 3 and 4
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  1. Anchoring and adjustment heuristic
    A mental shortcut through which people begin with a rough estimation as a starting point and then adjust this estimate to take into account unique characteristics of the present situation
  2. Attribution theories
    Theories designed to explain how people determine the causes of behavior
  3. Augmenting Principle
    The judgmental rule that states that if an event occurs despite the presence of strong opposing forces, we should give more weight to those possible causes that lead toward the event
  4. Availability Heuristic
    A mental shortcut people use to estimate the likelihood of an event by the case with which instances of that event come to mind
  5. Cognitive Heuristic
    A mental shortcut used to make a judgment
  6. Correspondence Bias (Fundamental attribution error)
    The tendency for observers to overestimate the causal influence of personality factors on behavior and to underestimate the causal role of situational influences
  7. Correspondent Inference Theory
    The theory that proposes that people determine whether a behavior corresponds to an actor's internal disposition by asking whether (1) the behavior was intended, (2) the behavior's  consequences were foreseeable, (3) the behavior was freely chose, and (4) the behavior occurred despite countervailing forces
  8. Covariation Model
    The theory that proposes that people determine the cause of an actor's behavior by assessing whether other people act in similar ways (consensus), the actor behaves similarly in similar situations (distinctiveness), and the actor behaves similarly across time in the same situation (consistency)
  9. Discounting Principle
    The judgmental rule that states that as the number of possible causes for an event increases, our confidence that any particular cause is the true one should decrease.
  10. Dispositional Inference
    The judgment that a person's behavior has been caused by an aspect of that person's personality
  11. Downward Social Comparison
    The process of comparing ourselves with those who are less well off
  12. False Consensus Effect
    The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others agree with us
  13. Representativeness Heuristic
    A mental shortcut people use to classify something as belonging to a certain category to the extent that it is similar to a typical case from that category
  14. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
    When an initially inaccurate expectation leads to actions that cause the expectation to come true
  15. Self-Serving Bias
    The tendency to take personal credit for out successes and to blame external factors for out failures
  16. Social Cognition
    The process of thinking about and making sense of oneself and others
  17. Upward Social Comparison
    The process of comparing ourselves with those who are better off
  18. Basking in Reflected Glory
    The process of associating ourselves with successful, high-status others or events
  19. Body Language
    The popular term for nonverbal behaviors like facial expressions, posture, body orientation, and hand gestures
  20. Competence Motivation
    The desire to perform effectively
  21. Cutting off reflected failure
    The process of distancing ourselves from unsuccessful, low status others or events
  22. Dramaturgical Perspective
    The perspective that much of social interaction can be thought of as a play, with actors, performances, settings, scripts, props, roles, and so forth
  23. Ingratiation
    An attempt to get others to like us
  24. Multiple Audience Dilemma
    A situation in which a person needs to present different images to different audiences, often at the same time
  25. Public Self-Consciousness
    The tendency to have chronic awareness of oneself as being in the public eye
  26. Self-Handicapping
    The behavior of withdrawing effort or creating obstacles to one's future successes
  27. Self-Monitoring
    The tendency to be chronically concerned with one's public image and to adjust one's actions to fir the needs of the current situation
  28. Self-Presentation
    The process through which we try to control the impressions people form of us; synonymous with impression management
  29. Self-Promotion
    An attempt to get others to see us as competent
  30. Shyness
    The tendency to feel tense, worried, or awkward in novel social situations and with unfamiliar people
  31. Social Anxiety
    The fear people experience while doubting that they'll be able to create a desired impression
  32. Attitude
    A favorable or unfavorable evaluation of a particular thing
  33. Balance Theory
    Heider's Theory that people prefer harmony and consistency in their views of the world
  34. Central Route to Persuasion
    The way people are persuaded when they focus on the quality of the arguments in a message
  35. Cognitive Dissonance
    The unpleasant state of psychological arousal resulting from an inconsistency within one;s important attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors
  36. Cognitive Response Model
    A theory that locates the most direct cause of persuasion in the self talk of the persuasion target
  37. Consistency Principle
    The principle that people will change their attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, and actions to make them consistent with each other
  38. Counterargument
    An argument that challenges and opposes other arguments
  39. Counter-attitudinal Action
    A behavior that is inconsistent with an existing attitude
  40. Dual Process Model of Persuasion
    A model that accounts for the two basic ways that attitude change occurs with and without much thought
  41. Elaboration Likelihood Model
    A model of persuasive communication that golds that there are two routes to attitude change - the central route and the peripheral route
  42. Impression Motivation
    The motivation to achieve approval by making a good impression on others
  43. Inoculation Procedure
    A technique for increasing individuals resistance to a strong argument by first giving them weak, easily defeated versions of it
  44. Need for Cognition
    The tendency to enjot and engage in deliberative thought
  45. Nonreactive Measurement
    Measurement that does not change a subject's responses while recording them
  46. Peripheral Route to Persuasion
    The way people are persuaded when they focus on factors other than the quality of the arguments in a message, such as the number of arguments
  47. Persuasion
    Change in a private attitude or belief as a result of receiving a message
  48. Post decisional Dissonance
    The conflict one feels about a decision that could possibly be wrong
  49. Theory of Planned Behavior
    A theory stating that the best predictor of a behacior is one's behavioral intention. which is influenced by one's attitude toward the specific behavior, the subjective norms regarding the behavior, and one's perceived control over the behavior

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