Bio 1215- Chapter 15
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Bio 1215- Chapter 15
introduction to ecology
study of interactions between organisms and their environment
All the interactions in ecology have been shaped by ______________.
Describe 4 things that determine where a species is found?
ability to disperse
through expansion or introduction
individuals select only certain habitats
predators, parasites, competitors can limit distribution
ecology, sunlight, climate
what do organismal ecologists study?
why do species live where they do?
how do organisms meet the challenges of their environment? (3)
morphology, physiology, and behaviour
what do population ecologists study? what are some examples?
studies within-species interactions
eg. population growth, size, structure
what do community ecologists study? what are some examples?
studies interspecies interactions
eg. predation, competition, parasitism, disease
what do ecosystem ecologists study?
how does energy flow through an ecosystem? how do nutrients flow?
dispersal of many species has increased because of?
List 2 patterns of species distribution.
what is biogeographic realms?
continental drift, mountains, deserts have created distinctive flora and fauna in different parts of the world
major types of communities that are typical of broad geographic areas
aquatic biomes can be ______ or __________.
(< 1% salt)
In which type of biome is the is the site of which most of the Earth's photosynthesis was done?
Aquatic biomes are define by what 2 features? what are some examples?
physical and chemical features
(on the bottom)
(in water column)
photic vs. aphotic
(further up shore)
what are 3 characteristics about
alternately exposed and submerged
organisms adapted to drying and wave action
could be rocky, gravel, sand, mud
Name the 8 terrestrial biomes.
what are terrestrial biomes determined and define by?
describe the tropical forest. (location, temp and rainfall, soil)
located mostly near equator
little variation in temp or daylight
rainfall varies with region
which is the most diverse biome?
why is the tropical forest the most diverse biome? (2)
there's a lot of different species, stability and predictability
more energy near the equator which powers more life
Tropical forests have
a lot of nutrients is taken my living things
nutrients are water soluble, which washes them away
why do tropical forests have layered canopies?
plants compete for light
in tropical forests
what are some characteristics about savannas? (types of plants, seasons, adaptation?, types of animals, weather)
mixture of grasses and thorny trees
one or two dry seasons
herds of mobile herbivores and their predators
tropical and subtropical
what are some characteristics of the desert? (location, rain, temp, adaptations, animals)
mostly in a band on either side of tropics
less than 30 cm rain/year
seasonal and daily temp variations
CAM or C4 extensive roots spines, secondary chemicals
many animals nocturnal
what are some characteristics of the chaparral? (location, seasons, plants, frequent?)
mild rainy winters; hot, dry summers
dense, spiny shrubs
what are some characteristics of temperate grasslands? (seasons, fire?, soil, animals)
like savanna, but colder winters
fires and drought exclude most trees
large grazers, burrowing rodents
what are some characteristics about temperate deciduous forests (broadleaf)? (seasons, rain, soil)
cold winters; hot summers
plenty of rain
what are some characteristics of coniferous forests (boreal forest)? (season, soil, animals, fire?)
hard, long winters, short, intense summers,
thin acidic soils
(animals who eat leaves of higher plants),
carnivores, seed eaters
in interior mostly, forest fires occur
what are some characteristics of the tundra? (location, seasons, soil, animals)
arctic or alpine
large mammals, some migratory
layer of soil that is permanently frozen; short roots, soil saturated; plants are low and shrubby