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study of interactions between organisms and their environment
All the interactions in ecology have been shaped by ______________.
Describe 4 things that determine where a species is found?
- ability to disperse: through expansion or introduction
- behaviour: individuals select only certain habitats
- biotic factors: predators, parasites, competitors can limit distribution
- abiotic factors: ecology, sunlight, climate
what do organismal ecologists study?
why do species live where they do?
how do organisms meet the challenges of their environment? (3)
through morphology, physiology, and behaviour
what do population ecologists study? what are some examples?
- studies within-species interactionseg. population growth, size, structure
what do community ecologists study? what are some examples?
- studies interspecies interactions
- eg. predation, competition, parasitism, disease
what do ecosystem ecologists study?
how does energy flow through an ecosystem? how do nutrients flow?
dispersal of many species has increased because of?
List 2 patterns of species distribution.
- biogeographic realm
what is biogeographic realms?
continental drift, mountains, deserts have created distinctive flora and fauna in different parts of the world
major types of communities that are typical of broad geographic areas.
aquatic biomes can be ______ or __________.
- fresh (< 1% salt)
- marine (~3% salt)
In which type of biome is the is the site of which most of the Earth's photosynthesis was done?
Aquatic biomes are define by what 2 features? what are some examples?
- define by physical and chemical features
- benthic (on the bottom) vs. pelagic (in water column)
- photic vs. aphotic
- neritic (near shore) vs. oceanic (further up shore)
what are 3 characteristics about intertidal zones?
- alternately exposed and submerged
- organisms adapted to drying and wave action
- could be rocky, gravel, sand, mud
Name the 8 terrestrial biomes.
- Tropical forest
- temperate grasslands
- temperate deciduous (broadleaf forest)
- coniferous forest (boreal forest)
what are terrestrial biomes determined and define by?
describe the tropical forest. (location, temp and rainfall, soil)
- located mostly near equator
- little variation in temp or daylight
- rainfall varies with region
- poor soil
which is the most diverse biome?
why is the tropical forest the most diverse biome? (2)
- there's a lot of different species, stability and predictability
- more energy near the equator which powers more life
Tropical forests have poor soil, why?
- a lot of nutrients is taken my living things
- nutrients are water soluble, which washes them away
why do tropical forests have layered canopies?
because plants compete for light in tropical forests
what are some characteristics about savannas? (types of plants, seasons, adaptation?, types of animals, weather)
- mixture of grasses and thorny trees
- one or two dry seasons
- fire adapted
- herds of mobile herbivores and their predators
- tropical and subtropical
what are some characteristics of the desert? (location, rain, temp, adaptations, animals)
- mostly in a band on either side of tropics
- less than 30 cm rain/year
- seasonal and daily temp variations
- plant adaptations: CAM or C4 extensive roots spines, secondary chemicals
- many animals nocturnal
what are some characteristics of the chaparral? (location, seasons, plants, frequent?)
- near coastlines
- mild rainy winters; hot, dry summers
- dense, spiny shrubs
- frequent fires
what are some characteristics of temperate grasslands? (seasons, fire?, soil, animals)
- like savanna, but colder winters
- fires and drought exclude most trees
- rich soils
- large grazers, burrowing rodents
what are some characteristics about temperate deciduous forests (broadleaf)? (seasons, rain, soil)
- cold winters; hot summers
- plenty of rain
- rich soil
what are some characteristics of coniferous forests (boreal forest)? (season, soil, animals, fire?)
- hard, long winters, short, intense summers,
- thin acidic soils
- browsers (animals who eat leaves of higher plants), carnivores, seed eaters
- in interior mostly, forest fires occur
what are some characteristics of the tundra? (location, seasons, soil, animals)
- arctic or alpine
- short summer (long days); dark winters
- large mammals, some migratory
layer of soil that is permanently frozen; short roots, soil saturated; plants are low and shrubby