a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II, the Supreme Court deemed Executive Order 9066 constitutional
Executive Order 9066
authorized the Secretary of War and the U.S. Armed Forces to declare military areas from which any or all persons may be excluded. Did not specify nationality or ethnic group but led to the relocation of Japanese Americans to internment camps
Henery J. Kaiser
a government agency established to regulate production and allocation of materials and fuel during the war; converted and expanded peacetime industries to meet war needs and rationed important materials
Office of Price Administration
Placed limits on the prices business could charge.
Rationing lead to the creation of the black market.
Put a ceiling on wage increases.
Success of Labor Unions
Membership grew to 13 million memebers.
United Mine Workers
Under John L. Lewis, they walked out several times.
Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act
Authorized the government to seize and take up business held up by strikes.
FDR speech that called on the nation to protect the four freedoms "freedom of speech, worship, from want, and from fear."
Women in Army
216,000 women enlisted in noncombat roles. (WAAC's, WAVES, & SPARES)
Mexican agriculture workers who ,under the agreement between America and Mexico, crossed the border to harvest crops.
Six Million women work outside the home.
Women Workers - Rosie the Riveter
Most recogonizable face in WWII. cultural icon representing the American woman who worked in factories, these women took the jobs of men while the men were in the military.
South African American Migration
1.6 million Southern African Americans migrate North because of Jim Crow Laws and segregation.
A. Phillip Randolph - "Negro March on Washington"
Head of Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. Wanted equal rights in the armed forces for African Americans.
Fair Employment Practice Commission (FEPC)
Monitor complince with no discrimination in defense industry.
For African Americans: a victory over fascism abroad and AND a victory over segregation at home
Membership rose 1/2 million
Congress of Racial Equality
Militant organization to ensure black rights.
Mechanical Cotton Picker
Did the work of 50 people at 1/8th the cost. Caused 5 million black tenent farmers to move up north.
Native Americans Migrating to Cities
War prompted migration from reservations
Native Americans in Armed Forces
Navajo Code Talkers
Zoot Suit Riot
Series of riots that broke out in CA becuase of the robberies of policemen.
War ended the depression.
1940 GDP >$1 billion
1945 GDP <$2 billion
Location of Japanese Attacks
Burma, Hong Kong, etc.
Invaded by Japan December 8,1941. General MacArthur Allied force leader.
Bataan Death March
American soldiers (MacArthur's men) were forced to march 65 miles to prison camps by their Japanese captors.
Battle of Coral Sea
Allied naval and air power stopped the Japanese advance and also relieved Australia from the threat of invasion. This victory was followed by the Battle of Midway Island.
General Douglass MacArthur
General Douglas MacArthur Commander of the US forces in the Philippine Islands who directed the Allied occupation of Japan
Battle of Midway
In this battle the US destroyed Japanese aircraft carriers and ended Japanese offensive in the Pacific Theater; turning point
1st US defensive move
WWII strategy of conquering only certain Pacific islands that were important to the Allied advance toward Japan.
Great Marianas Turkey Shoot
Destoryed 243 Jap Planes
Battle of Philppine Sea
US Navy sunk Jap naval carriers.
Island of Saipans in Marianas, suicide of Jap suriviors
German Submarine Warfare & US Shipping
German wolfpacks attacked US Shipping
Land-air war (Cologne)
Stalingard - September 1942
Red Army stopped Hitlers Eastern Offensive
The fight against Germany on the West
Allies move from Tunisa to Sicily to Italy.
Allies move troops to Sicily then Italy.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Commander of Allied Forces
FDR & Churchill meet and decide unconditional surrender is the only option for the axis powers. They want them to give up with no conditions.
Allies attack Sicily from Italy.
Fall of Mussolini
He is taken out of power.
After allied invasion
June 5, 1944.
Churhchill, Stalin, & FDR decide upon a 2nd front.
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II. Patton initially in control of an entirely fake base and army in Calais so that US could surprise attack the Germans.
Election of 1944
****Dem: FDR (4th win)
Battle of Bulge
Stopped at Batsogone stopped German forces
Genocide and Holocaust
Begin in 1941
Death of Hitler
April 5, 1945; Hitler kills himself.
Death of FDR
May 8, 1945 Victory in Europe Day.
Fire Bomb Raids
Destoryed a quarter of the city in Tokoyo and killed 83,000.
Returns to the Philippines in 1944.
Battle of Leyte Gulf
Allows America to regain control over the Philippenes.
Sunk thirty ships.
Discuss the spread of communism; Stalin promises nothing.
Worked on by Albert Einstein, a German scientist who created the atom bomb.
Aug 6, 1945
August 9, 1945
Japanese Surrender Condition
Victory in Japan Day
First deveopled in WWII due to fear of biological war fare.