PLG 379 Test 2

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PLG 379 Test 2
2014-04-09 06:46:08

Modle 2 test study
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  1. Family status
    • -Stage in life cycle (age, size of household, marital status, type of housing)
    • -Represents the fact that most moves people make within metro areas depend on the stage of life the household is going through
    • -Concentric zone model
  2. Socioeconomic status
    • -Social rank
    • -Income, occupation, education, ancestry
    • -Sector model
  3. Ethnic Status
    • -Segregation
    • -Multi-nuclei model
    • -Provide support systems for new immigrants
  4. CBD Users
    Workers, residents, shoppers, and visitors
  5. CBD linkage types
    • -Competitive:Proximity to competitors helps each business
    • -Complementary:Related businesses so they cluster together
    • -Ancillary: Servant businesses serving a larger one. e.g. a coffee shop near an office skyscraper
    • -Commensal: No interaction
  6. Core-Frame Concept
    • Core is surrounded by frame
    • -Core: Offices, major financial districts, convention centers, restaurants
    • -Frame: Parking, light manufacturing, multifamily housing
  7. Absolute vs. Relative Change
    • -Absolute: Decline in CBD population
    • -Relative: No change in CBD population or increase but the metro area increased at a higher rate
  8. Basic Retail Geography
    • -Threshold of a good: Minimum sales volume (or population) needed for an establishment selling the good to stay in business for the long run
    • -Order of a good: High order is high price and infrequently purchased while low order is cheap and a convenience good
  9. Ranges of a Good
    • -Inner range: Distance from establishment selling good within threshold population where potential customers can be found
    • -Ideal outer range: Maximum distance from establishment customer is willing to travel to get it
    • -Real outer range: Furthest actual distance consumer has to travel to get a good
  10. Metro Retail Landscape
    • -Nucleations: Shopping centers 
    • -Ribbins: Strip malls and strip development
    • -Specialized areas: Special purpose centers. e.g. car dealership rows
  11. Nucleations
    • -Convenience: Circle K, mom and pop, ect.
    • -Neighborhood: Weekly purchase of low order goods. Grocery stores, ect.
    • -Community: Not mall but bigger, more like strip malls, ect.
    • -Regional: Malls and anchor tenant areas
    • -Super-regional: Regional centers but on crack. 1 million plus acres
  12. Interceptor Ring Concept
    2-D version of ice cream vendors on beach
  13. Power Center and Strip Center
    • -Big Box: Magnet "big box" stores without smaller shops in areas
    • -Strip Centers: Strip malls
  14. Basic Office Firms
    • -Located independently from other firms
    • -Can be in CBD or suburbs
    • -Usually a corporate HQ, government office, ext.
  15. Supplementary Firms
    • These firms cluster around other supplementary firms to help each other 
    • -Advertising, accounting, lawyers
  16. Market-Oriented Firms
    • -These businesses are located where their customers re
    • -Branch banks, residential real estate brokers, travel agencies, etc.
    • -Locatedmuch like retail shops
  17. Population Accessibility Index

    • -Vj: Population Accessibility Index value for site j
    • -j:1,2,....m are the (number of?) sites under consideration
    • -i=1,2,...n are residential zones of the district
    • -Pi= Population of residential zone i
    • -dij= Distance from centriod of residential zone i to site j
    • *If confused, see power point. I was stoned when I made this and it made perfect sense
  18. Colin Clark Population Density Model
    • D(x)=D0 e^-bx
    • -D(x): Density at distance x
    • -b: A factor that controls how quickly density falls off with increasing distance from the center
    • -Unchanging and high values of b would mean that employment remains centralized
    • -As be approaches zero (and gets into decimal values), then decentralization is occurring
  19. Historical Stages of Industrial Location
    • -1: Craft shop and cottage industry. Production took place in home workshops
    • -2: The mill town and water power
    • -3: Transition to steam power and rail locations
    • -4: Decentralization from highways, tax laws, and less regulation outside of city
    • -5: Suburban Expansion continues because firms already located in suburbs continue to grow
  20. Industrial Park Strategies
    • -Industrial Park: Planned development to insure that compatible businesses are close by
    • -Have campus like character
  21. Types of Industrial Parks
    • -Traditional: Light manufacturing, assembly, distribution, etc.
    • -Research Park: Draw from academic community. Most have flopped
    • -Science/Tech park: Hybrid, part research park but allows warehousing,, distribution, light manufacturing, assembly. Aerospace firms, electronics, etc.
  22. Peak-Hour Ratio
    • 100 x peak hour flow/24 hour flow
    • -Most U.S. cities have a peak ration of 10-12%
  23. Daily Activity Space
    Space inside the boundary in which one person travels on the average day
  24. Restrictions on Spatial Behavior
    • -Capability Constraints: Availability of transport, stage in life cycle, physical condition, ability to own and drive a car
    • -Coupling Constraints: Accessibilitty: the ease of reaching different possible destinations within a certain time. Time-Space prism
    • -Authority Constraints: Restricted use, fees, fear, discrimination
  25. Major Trip Types
    • -Trip to work (Largest percentage of trips in metro areas)
    • -Shopping trips (second most trips taken in metro areas)
    • -Social and recreational trips (third most common)
  26. Black Hole Theory of Transportation
    Build more road capacity, people take more trips, congestion, and repeat
  27. Traffic Management Options
    • -Auto restraint policies: Eliminate parking, mandate paid parking, close off streets
    • -Traffic calming: Toll booths, speed humps, lots of stop signs
    • -Cheap methods of expanding existing road capacity like suicide lanes, bus pullouts, etc.
  28. Mass Transit Options
    • -Busses: Most commonly used, inferior good, not demand responsive
    • -Rapit Rail Transit (RRT): High capacity yet inflexible and have a high capital cost
    • -Light Rail Transit (LRT): Streetcars, combine bus and speed of RRT
  29. Para-Transit Options
    • -Hybrid between personal and mass transit
    • -Taxis, carpools, van service, dial-a-bus
  30. Non-Transportation Solutons
    • -Alternative work schedules to facilitate carpooling
    • -Telecommuting and e-shopping
    • -Better urban design