Evolution

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Author:
anitaebrahimi
ID:
269874
Filename:
Evolution
Updated:
2014-04-09 03:37:40
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biology Evolution
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  1. forming a very small remnant of something that was once much larger or more noticeable.
    (Don't use it at all now)
    Vestigial   
  2. Unrelated species develop similar traits due to similar environments or selective pressures
    Convergent evolution      
  3. Similar function constructed differently (ex fins on fish and fins on whale)
    Analogous Traits
  4. same structures used for different functions
    homologous
  5. Darwin's 5 theory evidence of evolution
    and description
    • 1. Biogeography: geographical distribution of species (Pangaea)
    • 2. Fossil Records: Fossils in order in which they appear in layers (most important evidence)
    • and that fossils back then of the same species are different than the fossils from now
    • life on earth has changed an increased number of life forms
    • 4.Observable Events: changes in species that have been observed and studied
    • 5. Comparative anatomy:  study of structures that appear during embryonic development
    • 6. Biochemical: DNA and proteins (amino acids) that are similar and have been passed on
  6. Genetic drift refers to the change in a type of genes in a population due to a random occurrence. In other words, a random circumstance causes a certain genetic trait to become more common or rarer over time.
    Genetic drift    
  7. The diversification of several new species from a recent ancestral source, each adapted to utilize or occupy a vacant adaptive zone

    ex: Some of them evolved and had firmer, smaller beaks to rip away bark for insects; others had longer, curved beaks to sip nectar from tubular flowers.
    Adaptive radiation  
  8. The total number of genes of every individual in an interbreeding population
    Gene pool
  9. refers to the situation where different species may live in the same area, but properties of individuals prevent them from interbreeding.
    Reproductive isolation
  10. isolation is an important evolutionary mechanism that helps members of the same species identify each other as proper mates.
    Behavioral isolation
  11. the exchange of genes between two separate populations. This is most often accomplished when animals or spores from plants migrate to a new area. Any time a gene is introduced into a population where that gene once did not exist, this process has occurred
    Gene flow         
  12. any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism,

    Organism within an organism
    Endosymbiosis  
  13. If you contain the best qualities in order to survive, you have...............
    fitness
  14. the accumulation of differences between groups which can lead to the formation of new species, usually a result of diffusion of the same species to different and isolated environments which blocks the gene flow among the distinct populations allowing differentiated fixation of characteristics
    Divergent evolution
  15. occurs when a new colony is started by a few members of the original population. This small population size means that the colony may have:reduced genetic variation from the original population. a non-random sample of the genes in the original population.
    • Founder effect
  16. the reduced genetic diversity that results when a population is descended from a small number of colonizing ancestors
    bottleneck effect
  17. a diagram depicting patterns of shared characteristics of various organisms
    Cladogram
  18. population of animals, plants, or other organisms that are separated from exchanging genetic material with other organisms of the same species.
    Geographic isolation
  19. members of different species mate at different times of the year/ in different seasons.
    Temporal isolation
  20. The process in which new genetically distinct species evolve usually as a result of genetic isolation from the main population.
    Speciation
  21. A factor present in an environment that controls a process, particularly the growth, abundance or distribution of a population of organisms in an ecosystem.
    Limiting factors
  22. The difference between Lamarck’s “acquired characteristics” and Darwin’s Theory of Evolution
    • Darwin theorized that all present organisms today came from a few much simpler organisms.
    • Lamarck theorized that bigger and stronger organisms survive while weak ones become extinct.
  23. directional Selection
  24. Stabilizing selection
  25. disruptive Selection
  26. How to use a dichotomous key
  27. How to use derived characters to interpret a
    cladogram
  28. The basic point of the Miller Urey experiment
    Created like anexperiment that simulated the conditions thought at the time to be present on the early Earth, and tested for the occurrence of chemical origins of life
  29. Natural vs. aritificial selection
    natural: When organisms on their own breed together to reproduce their good genes.

    Artificial: When humans decide, or pick 2 different breeds with certain traits to breed and make a new trait with specific genes, while eliminating other unwanted genes.
  30. The factors necessary for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
    • 1. Large Breeding Population
    • 2. Random Mating
    • 3. No Allele Mutations
    • 4.No immigration/emigration
    • 5. No natural selection
  31. Hierarchical classification system (in order)
    DKPCOFSGS
  32. Need for binomial nomenclature and of what it is composed
    • 2 name system that names the organism by its generic and specific name.
    • its needed because of the different words used to describe an organism throughout regions
    • Genus comes first and species comes second
    • more closely related if genus is same

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