Anatomy and Physiology Test 4

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Anatomy and Physiology Test 4
2014-04-09 03:05:08
anatomy physiology urinary system fluids electrolytes

anatomy and physiology, some digestive, mostly urinary system and fluids and electrolytes
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  1. mucosa in small intestine has
    absorptive cells, goblet cells, glands, paneth cells, and enteroendocrine cells
  2. MALT
    controls biota
  3. doudenal glands of Bruner
    in mucosa, secrete alkaline mucus. only exist in doudenum
  4. serosa in small intestine has
    circular folds, ridges (cause chyme to spiral and increase surface area)
  5. villi
    finger-like projections that contain arterioles, venules, capillaries, lacteals
  6. microvilli
    projections from cells, something about enzymes
  7. Peyer's patch
    only in ileum, produce intestinal juices
  8. brush border
    secretes enzymes, most digestion due to these enzymes
  9. mechanical digestion governed by
    myenteric plexus
  10. chemical digestion
    carbs, by pancreatic amylase, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
  11. large intestine functions
    absorb water, expel feces
  12. parts of large intestine
    cecum, appendix, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, ileocecal sphincter, internal and external anal sphincter
  13. mucosa of large intestine
    absorptive and has goblet cells
  14. muscularis of large intestine
    longitudinal muscle modified to form teniae coli
  15. haustra
  16. chemical digestion in large intestine
    bacteria derment carbs, produce some b & K vitamins
  17. pancreas
    produces digestive juice for small intestine
  18. pancreatic juice
    enters in duodeum at hepatopancreatic ampulla, contolled by sphincter of oddi
  19. majority of cells in pancreas
    acini, exocrine
  20. 12% of pancreatic cells are
    islets of langerhans, endocrine, secrete hormones glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide
  21. pancreatic juice
    water, sodium bicarbonate, enzymes, pancreatic amylase, proteolytic enzymes, pnacreatic lipase, ribonuclease, and deoxyribosenuclease
  22. liver
    largest and heaviest gland
  23. hepatocytes
    secrete bile that emulsifies fat
  24. bile canaliculi
    spaces between hepatocytes that transport bile onto small bile ducts in portal canal
  25. hepatic sinusoids
    highly permeable blood capillaries receiving oxygenated blood from hepatic artery and deoxygenated blood rich in nutrients from hepatic portal vein
  26. kupffer cells
    macrophages that eat dead RBCs
  27. functions of liver
    bile production, lipid metabolism, cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism, plasma protein synthesis, vitamin storage, degradtion of hormones, detoxification of drugs and toxins, filtration of blood
  28. portal triad
    central vein, hepatic sinusoids
  29. hepatic portal vein formed by
    gastric veins, splenic veins, pancreatic veins, superior mesenteric vein, inferior mesenteric vein
  30. bile
    about 1L secreted a day
  31. bilirubin
    derived from hemaglobin, elevated amounts cause jaundice
  32. hepatitis
    inflammation of liver, caused by hepatitis A, B, and C.Can lead to liver damamge and cancer
  33. cirrhosis
    liver becomes fatty and eventually replaced by fibrous scar tissue. alcoholics, obese are at risk. can lead to liver failure, where liver cannot regenerate fast enough
  34. gallbladder
    stores and concentrates bile, smooth muscle, absorbs water and ions
  35. gastrin
    hormone that regulates hormone production
  36. cholecystokin
    allows bile to enter duodenum
  37. secretin
    stimulates secretion of enzymes and buffers from pancreas
  38. kidney function
    regulate blood pH, volume, pressure, osmolarity, glucose level, hormones renin and erythropoetin, and excretion of waste.
  39. retroperitoneal
    kidneys are this: outside of pelvic cavity
  40. minor calyx
    tip of renal pyramid
  41. urine making
    cortex->medulla->cortex->down tubule->into pelvis->out ureter
  42. renal sinus
    space around renal pelvis
  43. blood supply to kidney
    L & R renal arteries
  44. branches of L & R renal arteries
    segmented->interlobar->arcuate->interlobular->afferent arterioles
  45. each nephron has one
    afferent arteriole
  46. glomerulus formed by
    afferent arterioles, which reunite to form efferent arteriole
  47. _____ nerves regulate blood flow
  48. 3 urine processes
    • glomerule filtration
    • tubular re absorption
    • tubular secretion
  49. renin
    hormone that eventually controls blood pressure
  50. nephron
    • microscopic functional unit
    • loop of henle
  51. renal corpuscle
    • filters blood plasma, found in cortex
    • contains glomerular capsule
  52. cortical nephrons
    • majority of nephrons
    • short loops of henle
    • extend into outer region of medulla
  53. juxtamedullar nephron
    stimulate renin hormone production
  54. layers of renal corpuscle
    • visceral layer: has podocytes
    • parietal layer
    • mesangia cells
    • bowman's capsule
  55. bowman's capsule
    space where urine first appears
  56. macula densa
    • in between afferent and efferent arterioles
    • epithelial cells
    • part of ascending loop of henle
  57. glomerular filtrate
    • fluid that enters capsular space
    • 99% returned to blood plasma
  58. filtration membrane
    • permits filtration of water and small solutes
    • prevents proteins, blood cells and platelets from crossing
  59. 3 barriers
    • 1. glomerular fenestrations
    • 2. fusal basal lamina of endothelium and podocytes
    • 3. pedicels of podocytes create filtration slits with slit diaphragms
  60. Net Filtration Pressure=
    glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure - capsular hydrostatic pressure - blood colloid osmotic presssure
  61. glomerular filtration rate
    amount of filtrate formed each minute
  62. proximal convoluted tubule
    • cells have microvilli that create brush border
    • largest amount of water and solute re absorption
  63. distal convoluted tubule
    major site where parathyroid hormone stimulates re absorption of Ca+
  64. principal cells
    • in collection ducts
    • receptors for antidiruretic hormone and aldosterone
    • reabsorb Na+, secrete K+
  65. intercalated cells
    • in collection ducts
    • role in blood pH
    • reabsorb K+ and HCO3- and secrete H+
  66. ADH
  67. aldosterone
  68. when blood ____ or ____ decreases, _____ is decreased in afferent ______ of ______, stimulates ______ cells to secrete ______
    pressure, volume, pressure, arterioles, glomerulus, juxtamedullar, renin
  69. renin work
    • renin-->angiotensinogen (plasma protein)
    • ----------V-------------
    • angiotensin I <-- angiotensis converting enzyme
    • ----------V------------------
    • angiotensin II
  70. angiotensin II
    • vasoconstrict afferent arterioles: decrease filtration
    • sitmulates production of aldosterone: enhances reabsorption of Na+ and Cl-
  71. atrial natriuetic peptide
    • prevents reabsorption of water
    • suppresses secretion of ADH
  72. diabetes insipidis
    no ADH
  73. counter current exchange
    movement of water and solutes between loop of henle and blood
  74. blood urea nitrogen
    results from catabolism and deamination of amino acids
  75. plasma creatine
    catabolism of creatine phosphate in skel foundation
  76. loop diuretics
    inhibit Na+ symporters
  77. thiazide diuretics
    inhibit Na+ symporters in collecting duct
  78. treatment for kindey failure
    continusous dialysis, kidney replacment
  79. intracellular
  80. extracellular
  81. milliequivalance
    measure concentrations of ions in body fluids
  82. calcium
    • most abundant mineral
    • prathyroid and calcitonin
    • blood clotting, neurotransmitter
  83. magnesium:
    cofactor for some enzymes
  84. chloride:
    anion, travels w/ sodium
  85. bicarbonate
  86. phosphate
    • bones, teeth, ATP, nucleic acids
    • parathyroid and calcitrol
  87. potassium deficiency
    • shallow respiration
    • changes in elctrocardiogram
    • flattening of T wave
  88. excesss of K+
    • weakness
    • ventricular fibrillation
  89. CO2 plays major role in ________ balance
  90. buffer systems
    bind to H+, can also release it again
  91. bicarbonate
    does not functionwell in respiratory dieases
  92. normalizing blood pH
    respiratory compensation
  93. respiratory acidosis
    • too much CO2
    • to reverse: kidneys raise blood pH by eliminating H+
  94. respiratory alkilosis
    • not enough CO2
    • to reverse: breath into bag
  95. metabolic acidosis
    • low HCO3-
    • to reverse: hyperventilate
  96. metabolic alkalosis
    • to much HCO3-
    • to reverse: hypoventilation