SBH3UE - Unit 1: Evolution Quiz

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  1. What is evolution?
    The process in which significant changes in the heritable traits of a species occured over time
  2. What did Leonardo da Vinci discover?
    In Tuscany mountains he saw old sea shell deposits - ancient ocean = Earth's surface dramatically changed over time
  3. What did Curvier observe? (2)
    Fossils of simple organisms could be found at all depths, but more complex fossils formed in the shallow depths

    Fossils in more recent deposits more resemble currently living things
  4. What's an intermediate fossil?
    Fossils that serve as links between two groups of animals
  5. What are features of an archaeopteryx that make it an intermediate fossil?
    • Wing claw - reptile
    • Toothed beak - reptile
    • Wings and feathers - bird
    • Vertibrae - reptile
  6. tell me about Eohippus and equus
    • equus small
    • equus lame bc grass went bye bye
    • horse naturally selected to develop strength and bigness
  7. Name an example of biogeography
    • dodo bird!!!!!!
    • species in mediterrean

    change in environment -> adaptation
  8. homologous structures
    share a common origin anatomically but serve different functions in a species
  9. example of a homologous structure?
    humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, and phalanges in humans, horses, cats, bats, birds, and whales. same bones and in anatomically similar structures, but serve different purposes (we use our humurus for arms; bats use to fly)
  10. analogous structures
    structures similar in function but different anatomically
  11. example of analogous structures?
    wings of birds and bees
  12. vestigial structures
    anatomical features that are fully used in one creature but are useless in another
  13. example of vestigial structures?
    pelvic girdle in whales and snakes
  14. what do homologous and analogous features show?
    organisms with homologous features share a more recent common ancestor; analogous have older ancestors
  15. difference between homologous, analogous, and vestigial
    • homologous - same anatomically but different in function
    • analogous - different anatomically, same function
    • vestigial - same anatomical origins; more effective in some organisms than others
  16. what do vestigial structures show
    common descent as organisms inherit the anatomy from their ancestors
  17. what did haeckel do
    so when vertbrates grow they have a spinal column and pharyngeal pouches. these pouches grow to be different hings - gill, tonsils, etc

    so haeckel was like let's draw a bunch of vertebrae look how similar they are guise

    but he was WRONG

    but they're still p similar not gonna lie
  18. why do organisms have similar dna
    DNA base sequences and amino acids depending on their similarity
  19. five things that prove common descent = evolution
    • fossils
    • biogeography
    • homologous and analogous and vestigial structures
    • embryo developement
    • DNA similarities
  20. five things in the hardy weinberg law that are proven false and show what's right
    • no mutuations -> yes mutations
    • no gene flow -> heck yeah gene flow
    • random mating -> naw b let me choose
    • no genetic drift -> genetic drift
    • no natural selection -> pls
  21. what is the hardy weinberg law
    as long as certain conditions are met, allele frequencies in a sexually reproducing population come to an equilibrium maintained generation after generation

    sexual reproduction cannot alter allele frequencies in a population
  22. significance of hardy weinberg law
    his law doesn't hold in real life. those five conditions do happen all the time, resulting in changed in allele frequencies generation after generation, resulting in evolution
  23. five agents of evolutionary change
    • mutation
    • genetic drift
    • non random mating
    • gene flow
    • natural selection
  24. how common are mutations
    1 in every 10000 cell divisions
  25. mutations: deletion, duplication, inversion, insertion, translocation
    • removal of one or more GENES
    • extra copy of one or more GENES
    • reversal of section of DNA
    • addition of DNA segment
    • switching DNA segments b/w non-homologous chromosomes
  26. gene flow
    movement of alleles from 1 population to another; reduces differences in population

    you have gene pools flowing into ur pool, making the two populatiosn the same gene pool

    prevent local adaption
  27. nonrandom mating
    when partners pair up according to genotypes and phenotypes
  28. what's inbreeding
    • mating to relatives to a great extent
    • may lead to over exposure of recessive, deleterious traits, decreasing fitness and causing inbreeding depression
  29. inbreeding depression
    over exposure of recessive, deleterious traits, decreasing fitness
  30. genetic drift
    changes in allele frequencies due to chance; more pronounced in small populations
  31. founder effect
    genetic drift when small numbers of a population make a new population
  32. bottleneck effect
    dramatic reduction in population size; a very small sample of alleles survive in a population to establish a new population by chance
  33. natural selection
    heritable traits that make it more likely for an organism to survive and successfully reproduce become more common in a population of successful generations
  34. how is the fitness of an individual measured
    how reproductively successful its offspring are in the next generation
  35. evolution by natural selection requires four things:
    • variation
    • inheritance
    • different adaptiveness
    • differential reproduction
  36. evolution by natural selection: variation
    members of a population differ from one another
  37. evolution by natural selection: inheritance
    differences have to be heritable
  38. evolution by natural selection: differential adaptiveness
    some difference affect how well an organism adapts to its environment
  39. evolution by natural selection: differential reproduction
    individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to reproduce and their fertile offspring will make up a greater proportion of the next generation
  40. macroevolution
    large-scale evolutionary changes significant enough to change the classification of groups above the species level
  41. microevolution
    changes in allele frequencies and phenotypic traits to form a new species
  42. example of mutations
    • water fleas thrives at 20 degrees and cannot live past 27 degrees
    • there's a mutation that let's them live between 25 and 27, ┬ábut not 20
    • if water temp rises, this mutation can be beneficial and passed on
  43. example of gene flow
    prairie dogs live in dense colonies. in late summers is when mature male pups from other colonies can come in, changing the gene pool and making it more similar
  44. example of non random mating
    the gene pool of the cheetah population is now reduced to a very small number, and cheetahs now have a very small gene pool. the homozygous individuals is cheetahs is greater due to inbreeding
  45. example of genetic drift
    • big population
    • big amount of it dies due to chance

    if one in fifty frogs carry an allele, if you have a population of 10 000 only 200 would carry it. thunderstorm, 100 out of very 5000. same shit

    in a smaller population, where it is expected for 2 out of 100 to have it, if a thunderstorm occured and killed half, the chance of the 2 frogs dying would eliminate, or both would survive, doubling the allele
  46. example of found effect
    • amish people made themselves a new community
    • in that smaller community, the frequency of that allele will be diff. from original population
  47. example of bottle neck effect
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SBH3UE - Unit 1: Evolution Quiz
2014-04-09 07:16:32
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