WLDM Test 2 Section 4

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WLDM Test 2 Section 4
2014-04-09 09:54:47

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  1. a departure from health:
  2. study of the cause of a particular disease
  3. study of how disease spreads
  4. disease causing agent
  5. What are the types of pathogens?
    • bacterial
    • viral
    • fungal
    • parasitic
    • amoebic
    • helminithic (worms)
  6. the organism that harbors the pathogen:
    host organism
  7. how disease moves from one host to another:
  8. affecting animals of a particular geographic area:
    enzootic/endemic diseases
  9. What are the types of enzootic diseases?
    • low-level
    • chronic
    • affects small numbers
  10. Anthrax:
    • not native to N. America
    • can't be transmitted by birds
    • warm summer months
    • kills rapidly
    • depression, lethargy, staggering, try to get water
  11. What can be a host for anthrax?
    • humans
    • cattle
    • sheep
    • goats
    • horses
    • pigs
    • cervids
  12. How can anthrax be transmitted?
    • cutaneus (skin)
    • inhalation (lungs)
    • gastro-intestinal (stomach)
  13. How can you tell an animal died from anthrax?
    • seemingly healthy animal
    • possible oozing lesion
  14. affecting a large number of animals at the same time within a particular geographic region:
    epizootic disease
  15. Can anthrax become epizootic?
    yes when conditions are favorable
  16. transmissible from animal to human:
  17. How can zoonotic diseases be transmitted?
    • insects
    • aerosol
    • soil
    • water
    • meat of infected animal
    • direct contact
  18. How can diseases be prevented or controlled?
    • vaccines
    • antibiotics
    • quarantine
    • proper carcass disposal
  19. heptatoxin affects:
  20. nephrotoxin affects:
  21. cardiotoxin affects:
  22. neurotoxin affects:
    nervous system
  23. teratogen affects:
    malformed embryos
  24. gastrointestinal toxin affects:
    stomach & intestines
  25. myotoxin:
    damages muslces
  26. mycotoxin:
    caused by fungus
  27. afalatoxin:
    liver disease found in moldy grain
  28. fumonisin:
    • toxic to horses/donkeys
    • lung edema in swine
    • found in maize, wheat, and other cereals
  29. What are some mycotoxins?
    • afalatoxin
    • fumonisin
  30. What is prussic acid?
    when plants are stressed and ingested by ruminants, HCN is released into the blood stream and keeps the blood from transporting oxygen to the animal (suffocating it)
  31. What plants can cause prussic acid poisoning?
    • sorghums (johnsongrass)
    • corn
    • species of plum
  32. What deficiencies can onset disease?
    • nutrients
    • water
    • diet
    • physical interference
    • absorption interference
  33. What are some stressors he environment?
    • drought
    • poor habitat condition
    • competition
    • natural disasters
  34. a disease passed from parent to offspring genetically:
    hereditary disease
  35. an abnormality present at birth:
    congenital defect
  36. What disease is associated with armadillos?
    leprosy (bacteria)
  37. What is canine distemper?
    virus brought on by raccoons, gray foxes, and coyotes
  38. What is EHD (epizootic hemorrhagic disease)?
    • a virus
    • can be vaccinated against
    • carried by cervids and bovids
  39. What is chronic wasting disease?
    • similar to mad cow disease
    • affects cervids (mule deer, white tail deer, elk)
  40. a modified protein that damages the central nervous system:
  41. What causes avian pox?
    a virus
  42. What is avian botulism?
    bacteria caused disease that results in paralysis
  43. an identifiable, stationary, localized source from which a pathogen is made available to a host:
    point source
  44. transmitted by direct or indirect contact:
  45. a carrier; the animal that transfers an infective agent from one host to another without becoming ill itself:
  46. Why should wildlife managers be concerned with disease?
    • zoonoses
    • density
    • population effects
    • management issues
  47. Brucellosis:
    bacteria that effects reproductive organs and leg joints of bison, elk, feral pigs, reindeer, caribou and marine mammals
  48. Tularemia:
    • bacteria that doesnt show symptoms but affects many mammals and birds
    • it is zoonotic
  49. What does zoonotic mean?
    it can affect humans
  50. all losses from physical causes other than disease, parasite, hunting, predation or lack of welfare factors:
    accidental mortality