Home > Preview
The flashcards below were created by user
on FreezingBlue Flashcards.
WHAT IS FIRST DEGREE MURDER,
SECOND DEGREE MURDER, AND
THIRD DEGREE MURDER?
- 1ST: Requires a PLAN (Premeditation) to cause death.
- 2ND: Intent to cause death but NOT planned.
- 3RD: An act that is dangerous to others and shows a disregard for human life. NO INTENT or PLAN.
WHAT IS MANSLAUGHTER? VOLUNTARY MANSLAUGHTER & INVOLUNTARY MANSLAUGHTER?
- MANSLAUGHTER: Unlawful killing of a person.
- VOLUNTARY: The INTENT to cause death to a person due to HEAT OF PASSION.
- INVOLUNTARY: Accidental homicide resulting from extreme NEGLIGENCE.
WHAT IS HOMICIDE? CRIMINAL HOMICIDE? NONCRIMINAL HOMICIDE?
- HOMICIDE:Killing of 1 person by another.
- CRIMINAL (FELONIOUS) : Divided into MURDER & MANSLAUGHTER.
- NONCRIMINAL (NONFELONIOUS): Divided into EXCUSABLE & JUSTIFIABLE homicide.
- EXCUSABLE HOMICIDE: Unintentional Killing of a person.
- JUSTIFIABLE HOMICIDE: Killing of another person under authorized law.
WHAT IS MALICIOUS INTENT? HEAT OF PASSION? EQUIVOCAL DEATH?
- MALICIOUS INTENT: Element of 1ST & 2ND degree murder & implies ill will, wickedness or cruelty.
- HEAT OF PASSION: Results from extremely volatile arguments.
- EQUIVOCAL DEATH: Can be suicide, homicide or accidental death.
WHAT ALGOR MORTIS? RIGOR MORTIS? & LIVOR MORTIS?
- ALGOR: Body Temperature
- LIVOR: Discoloration
WHAT IS ADIPOCERE? MUMMIFICATION? ASPHYXIA?
- ADIPOCERE: A soapy appearance
- MUMMIFICATION: Dehydration of all body tissue
- ASPH: Results when the body tissues and the brain receive insufficient oxygen to suppose the red blood cells.
WHAT IS POSTMORTEM ARTIFACT?
PMA: An injury occurring after death.
WHAT IS DEFENSE WOUNDS? HESITATION WOUNDS?
- DEF: Cuts on hands, arms, and legs.
- HES: Areas where the main wound occurs.
WHAT IS AUTOEROTIC ASPHYXIATION? TOXICOLOGY? EXPRESSIVE VIOLENCE? INSTRUMENTAL VIOLENCE?
- AUTO: Sexual acts that uses ropes or other ligature around the neck.
- TOXIC: Study of poisons.
- EXPRESS: Stemming from hurt feelings, anger or rage.
- INSTRU: goal-directed predatory behavior used to exert control.
WHAT IS MASS MURDER? SERIAL MURDER? LUST MURDER?
- MASS:When multiple victims are killed in a single incident by one or more suspects.
- SERIAL:Killing of 3 or more separate victims.
- LUST: Sex related homicide.
WHAT IS CLEARANCE RATE?
The ratio of crimes resolved to the ratio of crimes reported.
WHAT IS ASSAULT? SIMPLE ASSAULT? AGGRAVATED or FELONIOUS ASSAULT? BATTERY?
- ASSAULT: Unlawful threat to harm another person.
- SIMPLE: Intent to cause bodily harm or death.
- AGGRAVATED: Unlawful attack to cause severe bodily injures.
- BATTERY: Carrying out the threats.
WHAT IS IN LOCO PARENTIS?
IN THE PLACE OF PARENT
WHAT IS DOMESTIC VIOLENCE? INDICATOR CRIMES? STAKE IN CONFORMITY? FULL FAITH & CREDIT?
- DOMESTIC: A pattern of behaviors involving physical, sexual, economic, and emotional abuse.
- INDICATOR: Prior reports on crimes from a victim.
- SIC: "WHAT an OFFENDER has to LOSE"
- FFC: Validates orders of protection.
WHAT IS FEMICIDE? CYBERSTALKING? ELDER ABUSE?
- FEM: The murder of women.
- CYBER: Use of internet to stalk.
- Elder: Acts to harm a vulnerable elder.
WHAT IS PEDOPHILE? SADIST? PROSTITUTION?
- PED: A person that is sexually attracted to young kids.
- SADIST: A person who derives sexual happiness from causing pain to others.
- PROS: Soliciting sexual intercourse for pay.
WHAT IS BIGAMY? CHILD MOLESTATION? INCEST? INDECENT EXPOSURE? EXHIBITIONISTS? SODOMY?
- BIGAMY: Marrying someone who is already married.
- CHILD: A felony act involving a child.
- INCEST: Sexual intercourse between family.
- INDECENT: Revealing ones genitals to another person.
- EXHIBIT: Exposing yourself.
- SODOMY: Any form of anal or oral copulation.
WHAT IS RAPE? FORCIBLE RAPE? STATUTORY RAPE? DATE RAPE?
- RAPE: Sexual intercourse with a person against their will.
- FORCIBLE: Sexual intercourse against a persons will using force.
- STATUTORY: Sexual intercourse with a minor.
- DATE: Victim knows the suspect and drugs (Rohypnol: oldest IV drug used in crimes) and alcohol is often used.
WHAT IS CUNNILINGUS/ORAL COPULATION? DIGITAL PENETRATION? FELLATIO? INTIMATE PARTS?
- CUNNILINGUS/ ORAL COP: Sexual activity involving oral contact with female genitals.
- DIGITAL: the act of using fingers to penetrate.
- FELLATIO: Sexual activity involving male genital.
- INTIMATE PARTS: REFERS TO THE PRIMARY GENITALS AREAS.
WHAT IS BLINDSIDE?
Allows sexual assault victims to retain their anonymity and confidentiality.
what is maltreatment?neglect? physical abuse? emotional abuse?
- MALTREATMENT: To treat roughly.
- NEGLECT: Failure to meet childs basic needs.
- PHYSICAL: beating, whipping, burning or anything inflicting harm to children.
- EMOTIONAL: Causing fear or feelings of unworthiness.
WHAT IS SEXUAL ABUSE? SEXUAL SEDUCTION? LEWDNESS?
- SEXUAL ABUSE: Sexually messing with kids.
- SEXUAL SEDUCTION: Ordinary sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, cunnilingus or fellatio.
- LEWDNESS: touching a minor to arouse.
WHAT IS TEMPORARY CUSTODY W/O HEARING? MANDATED REPORTERS?
- TCWOH: 48 Hours
- MR: teachers, school authorities, child care/ camp personnel, etc.
WHAT IS SADOMASOCHISTIC ABUSE? SEXUAL CONTACT? SEXUALLY EXPLICIT CONDUCT?
- SADOMASOCHISTIC ABUSE: fettering, blinding or otherwise physically restraining; whipping; or torturing for sexual gratification.
- SEXUAL CONTACT: includes any act committed without the complainant's consent for the suspect's sexual or aggressive satisfaction.
- SEXUAL EXPLICIT CONDUCT: any type of sexual intercourse between persons of the same or opposite sex, bestiality, sadomasochistic abuse, lewd exhibition or mutual masturbation.
WHAT IS MUNCHAUSEN SYNDROME? MUNCHAUSEN BY PROXY SYNDROME? OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTA? SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME?
- MUNCHAUSEN SYNDROME: involves self-induced pr self-inflicted injuries.
- MBPS: is a form of child abuse in which a parent or adult caregiver deliberately provides false medical history.
- OI: or brittle bone disease, is a genetic disorder characterized by bones that break easily, often from little or no apparent cause.
- SIDS: is a diagnosis by exclusion and is the most frequently determined cause of sudden unexplained infants death.
WHAT IS MISOPED? HEBEPHILE? PEDOPHILE/ CHICKEN HAWK?
- MISOPED: the person who hates children, has sex with them and then brutally murders them.
- HEBEPHILE: a person who selects high school-age youths as his or her sex victims.
- PEDOPHILE/ CHICHKEN HAWK: an adult who has either heterosexual or homosexual preferences for young boys or girls of a specific, limited age range.
WHAT IS EXPLOITATION? SEXUAL EXPLOITATION? SEXTING? KIDNAPPING?
- EXPLOITATION: refers to talking unfair advantage of children or using them illegally.
- SEXUAL EXPLOITATION: any person who employs, uses, persuades, induces, entices, or coerces any minor to engage or assist in engaging in any sexual explicit conduct for the purpose of producing any visual or print medium.
- SEXTING: sending or posting a nude picture of oneself to another person through the internet, using a cell phone to transmit the image.
- KIDNAPPING: is taking someone away by force, often for ransom.
WHAT IS ROBBERY? CARJACKING? BAIT MONEY? DYE PACK? STOCKHOLM SYNDROME?
- ROBBERY: is the felonious taking of another's property, either directly from the person or in that person's presence, through force or intimidation.
- CARJACKING: a category of robbery, is the taking of a motor vechile by force or threat of force. the FBI my investigate the crime.
- BAIT MONEY: is U.S currency with recorded serial numbers placed at each teller position.
- DYE PACK: is a bundle of currency containing a colored dye and tear gas.
- STOCKHOLM SYNDROME: occurs when hostages report that they have no ill feelings toward the hostage takers and further, that they feared the police more then they feared their captors.
WHAT IS BURGLARY? RESIDENTIAL BURGLARY? ROUTINE ACTIVITY THEORY? COMMERCIAL BURGLARY? SMASH AND GRAB? PRESUMPTIVE EVIDENCE?
- BURGLARY: is the unlawful entry of a structure to commit a crime.
- RESIDENTIAL BURGLARY: occurs in buildings, structures or attachments that are used as or are suitable for dwellings even though they may be unoccupied at the time of the burglary.
- ROUTINE ACTIVITY THEORY: proposes that crime results from the simultaneous existence of three elements:(1) the presence of likely or motivated offenders,(2) the presence of suitable targets and (3) an absence of guardians to prevent the crime.
- COMMERCIAL BURGLARY: is one that involves churches, schools, barns, public buildings, shops, offices, stores, factories, warehouse, stables. ships or railroad cars.
- SMASH AND GRAB: entry also includes remaining in a store until after closing time and then committing a burglary.
- PRESUMPTIVE EVIDENCE: that a crime is intended; that is, it provides a reasonable basis for belief.
WHAT IS VERIFIED RESPONSE POLICY? HIT AND RUN BURGLARY? SAFE? VAULT? TARGET HARDENING?
- VERIFIED RESPONSE POLICY: meaning they will not respond to a burglary alarm unless criminal activity is first confirmed through either and onsite security officer; verbal communication with a resident or employee onsite.
- HIT AND RUN BURGLARY: also called smash and grab in which the burglar smash a window to steal merchandise, is most frequently committed by younger, inexperienced burglars.
- SAFE: is a semi-portable strongbox with a combination lock.
- VAULT: is a stationary room of reinforced concrete, often steel lined, with a combination lock.
- TARGET HARDENING: involves altering physical characteristics of the property to make it less attractive to criminals.
WHAT IS PUNCHING? PEELING? CHOPPING? PULLING/ DRAGGING? BLOWING? BURNING?
- PUNCHING: the dial is sheared from the safe door by a downward blow with a sledge or by holding a chisel to the dial and using a sledge to knock it off, exposing the safe mechanism spindle.
- PEELING: the burglar drills a hole in a corner of the safe and then makes the hole successively larger by using other drills until the narrow end of a jimmy can be inserted in the hole to pry the door partially open.
- CHOPPING: the burglar uses a sledge and chisels or a heavy chopping instrument, such as an axe, to chop a hole in the bottom of the safe large enough to remove the contents.
- PULLING/ DRAGGING: the burglar inserts a V plate over the dial, with the V in place behind the dial.
- BLOWING: the burglar drills a hole in the safe near the lock bar area or pushes cotton into an area of the safe door crack and puts nitroglycerin on the cotton.
- BURNING: often uses a "BURNING BAR", a portable safecracking tool that burns a hole into the safe to gain entry.
WHAT IS LARCENY/ THEFT? GRAND LARCENY? PETTY LARCENY? FLAGGERS? SHRINKAGE?
- LARCENY/ THEFT: is the unlawful taking, carrying, leading or driving away of property from the possession of another.
- GRAND LARCENY: a felony.
- PETTY LARCENY: a misdemeanor.
- FLAGGERS: go around neighborhoods targeting mailboxes with their flags up, searching for envelopes containing checks and other forms of payment.
- SHRINKAGE: refers to the unexplained or unauthorized loss of inventory, merchandise, cash or any other asset from a retail establishment due to employee theft, shoplifting, organized retail crime, administrative errors and vendor fraud.
WHAT IS POACHING? LEAKAGE?
- POACHING: is illegally taking or possessing fish, game or other wildlife, including deer, elk, bear, pheasant, ducks, wild turkeys and grouse.
- LEAKAGE: the illegal or unauthorized removal of cargo from the supply chain.
WHAT IS FRAUD? CONFIDENCE GAMES? SHORT-CON GAMES? LONG-CON GAMES? PROPERTY FLIPPING?
- FRAUD: activity of individuals who pretend to be what they are not.
- CON: obtains money or property by a trick.
- SHORT: takes victims for whatever money they have
- LONG: higher stakes.
- PROPERTY: Offender buys a property near its estimate market value.
WHAT IS SLAMMING? CRAMMING? GOUGING? SLIDING? JAMMING? FLUFFING?
- SLAM: Unauthorized switch of a long-distance carrier.
- CRAM: billing consumers for unauthorized charges.
- GOUG: companies charging undisclosed fees when calls are made from hotel rooms, pay phones.
- SLID: Unauthorized carrier switches a specific call from the long distance carrier.
- JAM: setting up road blocks.
- FLUFF: when rates are increased without notification.
WHAT IS WHITE COLLAR CRIMES? MONEY LAUNDERING?
- WCC: involves illegal acts characterized by fraud, concealment or a violation of trust.
- MONEY L: converting dirty money into clean money.
- THE MONEY LAUNDERING PROCESS:
- PLACEMENT: BASIC METHOD
- SMURFING & STRUCTURING
- LAYERING: SECOND STEP
- INTEGRATION: THIRD STEP
WHAT IS EMBEZZLEMENT? PARALLEL PROCEEDINGS?
- EMB: Fraudulent appropriation of property.
- PARALLEL: Pursuing civil and criminal sanctions at the same time.
WHAT IS MOTOR VEHICLE? DYER ACT? TELEMATIC TECHNOLOGY?
- MV: Any self-propelled device for moving people or property.
- DA: Made interstate transportation of a stolen MV a federal crime.
- TT: transfer data between a remote vehicle and a host computer.
WHAT ARSON? AGGRAVATED & SIMPLE ARSON? STRIKER? ACCELERANTS? FIRE TRIANGLE? IGNITERS?
- ARSON: Willful burning of another persons home.
- AGGRAVATED: Intent to destroy or damage a dwelling or other property.
- SIMPLE: intent destruction by fire or explosives that does not create danger.
- STRIKER: Vanity arsonist
- ACCELERANTS: Substances that promotes combustion.
- FIRE TRIANGLE: AIR FUEL HEAT.
- IGNITERS: Substances or devices used to start fires.
WHAT IS ALLIGATORING? CRAZING? DEPTH OF CHAR? LINE OF DEMARCATION? SPALLING?
- ALLIG: Checking of charred wood
- CRAZ: formation of irregular cracks in glass caused by rapid intense heat.
- DEPTH: Indicates the length of burn and the fires point of origin.
- LINE: Boundary between charred & uncharred material.
- SPALL: breaking off of surface pieces.
WHAT IS TRAILER? ADMINISTRATIVE WARRANT? DISRUPTERS?
- TRAILER: can be made of paper, hay, flammable compounds or any substance that burn readily.
- ADMINISTRATIVE WARRANT:FOR SEARCHING THE PREMISES FOR CAUSE OF FIREAND ORIGIN DETERMINATION AND A CRIMINAL WARRANT WHEN EVIDENCE OF A CRIME IS DISCOVERED.
- DISRUPTERS: devices that use gunpowder to fire a jet of water or a projectile at a particular component of an explosive to make it safe.
WHAT IS COMPUTER CRIME? ADWARE? Firewall? HACKTIVISM? IMAGING? KEYSTROKE LOGGING?
- COMPUTER CRIME: which involves the addition, deletion, change or theft of information.
- ADWARE: a type of spyware used by advertisers to gather consumer and marketing information.
- FIREWALL: a software or hardware protective measure that blocks ports of access to a computer or network to prevent unauthorized access.
- HACKTIVISM: using cyberspace to harass or sabotage sites that conduct activities or advocate philosophies
- IMAGING: making a byte-by-byte copy of everything on the hard drive.
- KEYSTOKE LOGGING: a diagnostic technique that capture a user's keystrokes.
WHAT IS LOGIC BOMB? MALWARE? PHREAKING? PIRACY? PORT SCANNING? SKIMMING?
- LOGIC BOMB: secretly attaches to another program in a company's compute system.
- MALWARE: a contraction of " malicious software".
- PHREAKING: exploiting the telephone system's vulnerabilities to acquire free access and usage in a dial-up Internet provider system.
- PIRACY: copying and using computer programs in violation of copyrights and trade secret laws.
- PORT SCANNING: looking for access into a computer.
- SKIMMING: a method in which a device is placed in a card reader to record sensitive information.
WHAT IS SNIFFING? SYPWARE? TROJAN HORSE? URL? ZOMBIE?
- SNIFFING: MONITORING DATA TRAVELING ALONG A NETWORK.
- SPYWARE: malicious, covert software that infects a computer in a manner similar to viruses.
- TROJAN HORSE: a malicious program hidden inside an apparently harmless, legitimate program, intended to carry out unauthorized or illegal functions.
- URL: universal resource locator.
- ZOMBIE: a computer that has been taken over by another computer.
WHAT IS INTERNET PROTOCOL(IP) ADDRESS? STATIC IP ADDRESS? DYNAMIC IP ADDRESS? DOMAIN NAME? HACKER? CRACKER? SCRIPT KIDDIE?
- IP ADDRESS: is a unique number.
- STATIC IP ADDRESS: does not change.
- DYNAMIC IP ADDRESS: change frequently.
- DOMAIN NAME: is the unique name of a computer system on the internet that distinguishes it from all other online systems.
- HACKER: is not necessarily a negative term.
- CRACKER: intrude into a computer or network to cause damage.
- SCRIPT KIDDIE: a derogatory term used to describe a less talented hacker who must use script or programs.
WHAT IS COMPUTER VIRUS? WORM? DENIAL OF SERVICE? PHISHING? SPAM? SPOOFING? PHARMING?
- COMPUTER VIRUS: a program that attacks attaches itself to and becomes part of another executable program.
- WORM: is a self-contained program that travels from machine to machine across network connections.
- DENIAL OF SERVICE: DOS attack disrupts or degrades a computer or network's internet connection or e-mail service, thus interrupting the regular flow of data.
- PHISHING: is a method in which criminals misrepresent themselves as a trustworthy source to get victims to disclose personal and sensitive information.
- SPAM: is unsolicited bulk e-mail messages, similar to junk mail and commonly commercial.
- SPOOFING: is acquiring unauthorized access to a computer or network through a message using and IP address that appears to be from a trusted host.
- PHARMING: hijacking a domain name to redirect online traffic away from a legitimate Web site toward a fake site, such as a bogus bank website.
WHAT IS CYBERTERRORISM? ENCRYPTION? STEGANOGRAPHY? HARDWARE DISABLER? DATA REMANENCE?
- CYBERTERRORISM: is the premeditated, politically motivated attack against information, computer systems, computer programs.
- ENCRYPTION: employing sophisticated techniques.
- STEGANOGRAPHY: hidden writing.
- HARDWARE DISABLER: a device designed to ensure a self-destruct sequence of any potential evidence.
- DATA REMANENCE: the residual physical representation of data that have been erased.
WHAT IS CRACK? NARCOTIC? DEPRESSANT? HALLUCINOGEN? SINSEMILLA?
- CRACK: called rock or crack rock is produced by mixing cocaine with baking soda and water, heating the solution in a pan and then drying and splitting the substance in pellet-size bits or chunks.
- NARCOTIC: a drug that is physically and psychologically addicting.
- DEPRESSANT: a drug that reduces restlessness and emotional tension and induces sleep.
- HALLUCINOGEN: a drug that induce hallucinations or perceptual distortions of reality.
- SINSEMILLA: homegrown marijuana.
WHAT IS CRANK? TWEAKER? COOK? CLUB DRUGS? RAVES? MDMA/ ECSTASY?
- CRANK: a street name for methamphetamine.
- TWEAKER: is a methamphetamine addict.
- COOK: someone who produces the drug.
- CLUB DRUG: are those drugs commonly found at raves.
- Raves: dance parties that feature fast-paced music and light shows.
- MDMA/ ECSTASY: or XTC is a powerful stimulant derivative of amphetamine, or speed.
WHAT IS OTC DRUGS? ROBOTRIPPING? SKITTLING? PHARMING? DESIGNER DRUGS? ANALOGS?
- OTC DRUGS: over the counter drugs.
- ROBOTRIPPING: is drinking bottles of cough syrup to get high.
- SKITTLING; is pills remeble red pieces of skittles and is igesting high doses of Coricidin Cough and Cold tablets.
- PHARMING: which is the most riskiest and hazardous practice and it is rifling through the famil medicine cabinet for pills both OTC and prescription.
- DESIGNER DRUGS: are created by adding to or omitting something from an existing drug.
- ANALOGS: the illicit drugs.
WHAT IS DRUG ADDICT? BODY PACKING? EXCITED DELIRIUM? MULES? FLASHROLL? STING/ REVERSE BUY?
- DRUG ADDICT:any one who habitually uses any habit-forming narcotic drugs.
- BODY PACKING: strip-search is usually conducted because drugs can be concealed in any body opening including the rectum or vagina.
- EXCITED DELIRIUM: occur in people under the influence of an illicit stimulant substance.
- MULES: sell or transport drugs for a regular dealer in return for being assured of a personal drug supply.
- FLASHROLL: is money.
- STING/ REVERSE BUY: a complex operation organized and implemented by undercover agents to apprehend drug dealers and buys from a certain location.
WHAT IS ORGANIZED CRIME? CRIMINAL ENTERPRISE? VICTIMLESS CRIME? BOOKMAKING? LOAN-SHARKING? CAPITAL FLIGHT?
- ORGANIZED CRIME: any group having some manner of a formalized structure.
- CRIMINAL ENTERPRISE: is a group of individuals with an identified hierarchy, or comparable structure, engaged in significant criminal activity.
- VICTIMLESS CRIME: is an illegal activity in which all involved are willing participants.
- BOOKMAKING: is the most prevalent gambling operation.
- LOAN-SHARKING: lending money at exorbitant interest rates.
- CAPITAL FLIGHT: the large-scale removal of funds or capital from a country.
WHAT IS A GANG? STREET GANG? GRAFFITI? FLASH MOB? MONIKER? TURF?
- GANG: a group or association of three or more persons with a common identifying sign.
- STREET GANG: any durable, street-oriented youth group whose own identity includes involvement in illegal activity.
- GRAFFITI: how gangs identify their turf.
- FLASH MOB: is a mob rob.
- MONIKER: is a nickname.
- TURF: the geographic area of domination that gang members will defend to the death.
WHAT IS A BIAS CRIME/ HATE CRIME? HATE INCIDENTS? CULT? ANTICHRIST? BEELZEBUB? COVEN?
- BIAS CRIME/ HATE CRIME: is a traditional criminal act such as murder.
- HATE CRIME: involve behaviors that though motivated by bias against a victim's race, religion, etc.
- CULT: is a system of religious beliefs and rituals.
- ANTICHRIST: the son of Satan.
- BEELZEBUB: a powerful demon, directly under Satan.
- COVEN: a group of witches or Satanists.
WHAT IS A HAND OF GLORY? INCANTATION? MAGICK? OCCULT? RITUAL? SABBAT? BLACK MASS?
- HAND OF GLORY: the left hand of a person who has died.
- INCANTATION: verbal spell.
- MAGICK: the glue that binds occult groups, a supernatural act or force that causes a change in the environment.
- OCCULT: secret knowledge of super-normal powers.
- RITUAL: prescribed from of religious or mystical ceremony.
- SABBAT: a gathering of witches.
- BLACK MASS: mocks the Christian ritual of communion by substituting blood and urine for wine and feces for the bread.
WHAT IS A JIHAD? TERRORISM? ASYMMETRIC WARFARE? INTIFADA? ECOTERRORISM? BIOTERRORISM?
- JIHAD: a holy war.
- TERRORISM: the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government.
- ASYMMETRIC WARFARE: combat in which a weaker group attacks a superior group not head-on but by targeting areas where the adversary least expects to be hit.
- INTIFADA: a uprising.
- ECOTERRORISM: seeks to inflict economic damage on those who profit from the destruction of the natural environment.
- BIOTERRORISM: involves dissemination of anthrax, botulism and smallpox as WMD's.
WHAT IS TECHNOLOGICAL TERRORISM? CYBERTERRORISM? HAWALA? FUSION CENTER?
- TECHNOLOGICAL TERRORISM: includes attacks on our technology as well as by technology.
- CYBERTERRORISM: terrorism that initiates, or threatens to initiate, the exploitation of or attack on information systems.
- HAWALA: is an informal banking system based on trust.
- FUSION CENTER: a collaborative effort of two or more agencies that provide reources and information to the center with goal of maximizing their ability to detect and respond to criminal and terrorist activity.
WHAT IS A SLEEPER CELL? DECONFLICTION? CONTAGION EFFECT?
- SLEEPER CELL: a group of terrorists who blend into a community.
- DECONFLICTION: protocol, which essentially means guidelines to avoid conflict.
- CONTAGION EFFECT: coverage of terrorism inspires more terrorism, thus making terrorism, in effect, contagious.
WHAT IS A EXCEPTIONALLY CLEARED? DISCOVERY PROCESS? BRADY RULE? IMPEACH? SUBPOENA?
- EXCEPTIONALLY CLEARED: when circumstances outside the investigation result in no charges being filed.
- DISCOVERY PROCESS: requires the prosecution and defense to disclose to each other certain evidence they intend to use at trail.
- BRADY RULE: is evidence that tends to show innocence of accused must be disclosed.
- IMPEACH: to accuse before and appropriate tribunal of misconduct in office.
- SUBPOENA: an order to appear before the court.
WHAT IS A RULE ON WITNESSES/ WITNESS SEQUESTRATION RULE? MOTION IN LIMINE? ADVERSARY SYSTEM? BENCH TRIAL?
- ROW/WSR: witnesses usually are excluded from the courtroom during a trial to prevent one witness from hearing another witness's.
- MOTION IN LIMINE: motion requesting the judge to issue a protective order against prejudicial questions or statements.
- ADVERSARY SYSTEM:which establishes clearly defined roles for both the prosecution and the defense and sets the judge as the neutral party.
- BENCH TRIAL: if the trial is before a judge without a jury.
WHAT IS A DIRECT EXAMINATION? CROSSEXAMINATION? REBUTTAL? SURREBUTTAL? DE MINIMUS COMMUNICATION?
- DIRECT EXAMINATION: is the initial questioning of a witness or defendant by the lawyer who is using the person's testimony to further his or her case.
- CROSSEXAMINATION: is questioning by the opposing side to assess the validity of the testimony.
- REBUTTAL: witness to contradict the evidence presented by the defense.
- SURREBUTTAL: witnesses to contradict the evidence presented by the prosecution.
- DE MINIMUS COMMUNICATION: IS A SIMPLE HELLO OR GIVING OF DIRECTIONS.
WHAT IS THE WELL? EXPERT WITNESS? BRACKETS?
- THE WELL: is off-limits and is to be entered only if the judge so directs or permission is granted.
- EXPERT WITNESS: is a person who has had special training, education or experience.
- BRACKETS: provide a range.