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What are the 3 phases of starvation?
What happens in Phase 1?
- emptying of gastrointestinal tract
- short phase
- little fat loss
What happens in Phase 2?
- reduced basal metabolism and activity
- fat is utilized for energy
- longest phase
- ends when fat stores have been used up
What happens in Phase 3?
- increased use of protein
- rapid weight loss
- later in this stage can't be recovered from
What are the 3 sources of water?
- free: rivers, creeks, rain, dew, snow
- preformed: food
- metabolic: from hydrogen containing compounds
How do animals conserve water?
- crepuscular activity
- select succulent plants for food
- select seeds with higher moisture content
- store seeds in moist areas to retain moisture
- select insects with higher moisture content
What is crepescular?
activity that occurs at dawn or dusk
What determines nutrient needs?
What are the nutrient needs?
What affects the food quality of herbivores?
- soil fertility
- variable protein
- plant defenses
require cover to prevent excessive buildup or loss of heat:
place where two habitats meet:
the apparent increase in abundance of wildlife at places classified as an edge:
Why is there an increase in abundance in the edge effect?
- simultaneous access to more than one environmental need
- greater variety of vegetation
Who were the co-discoverers of the concept of natural selection?
- Alfred Wallace
- Charles Darwin
What was krakatau? And what state of succession is it in?
- a volcano that has created an island
- currently it is building up its number of species
Most documented species extinctions have been on what?
Theoretically, larger or smaller islands have a higher rate of increase?
larger islands because of larger surface area
theoretically, smaller islands have a higher or lower rate of extinction?
What is Wallace's line? What significant difference exists on either side of that line?
a sudden change in flora or fauna of an area between islands; one side is similar to Java and Sumatra while the other is similar to New Guinea and Australia
What year was New Zealand created?
What year was Madagascar created?
What year was Mauritius created?
What year was Easter Island created?
What year was Hawaii created?
What island had no native animals except for bats?
What island had no native snakes?
What island is one of the most biologically richest areas on earth?
What island is an example of the ultimate catastrophic effects of overexploitation of resources and over population of a species?
What are the five ways introduced species play a role in extinctions on islands?
- habitat destruction
- competition for food
- competition for space
What is extirpation?
when a species dies but survives somewhere else