dog boy

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  1. mucosa in small intestine has
    absorptive cells, goblet cells, glands, paneth cells, and enteroendocrine cells
  2. doudenal glands of Bruner
    in mucosa, secrete alkaline mucus. only exist in doudenum
  3. serosa in small intestine has
    circular folds, ridges (cause chyme to spiral and increase surface area)
  4. pancreas
    produces digestive juice for small intestine
  5. pancreatic juice
    enters in duodeum at hepatopancreatic ampulla, contolled by sphincter of oddi
  6. majority of cells in pancreas
    acini, exocrine
  7. pancreatic juice
    water, sodium bicarbonate, enzymes, pancreatic amylase, proteolytic enzymes, pnacreatic lipase, ribonuclease, and deoxyribosenuclease
  8. bile canaliculi
    spaces between hepatocytes that transport bile onto small bile ducts in portal canal
  9. hepatic sinusoids
    highly permeable blood capillaries receiving oxygenated blood from hepatic artery and deoxygenated blood rich in nutrients from hepatic portal vein
  10. kupffer cells
    macrophages that eat dead RBCs
  11. portal triad
    central vein, hepatic sinusoids
  12. hepatic portal vein formed by
    gastric veins, splenic veins, pancreatic veins, superior mesenteric vein, inferior mesenteric vein
  13. gastrin
    hormone that regulates acid production
  14. cholecystokin
    allows bile to enter duodenum
  15. secretin
    stimulates secretion of enzymes and buffers from pancreas
  16. minor calyx
    tip of renal pyramid
  17. urine making
    cortex->medulla->cortex->down tubule->into pelvis->out ureter
  18. renal sinus
    space around renal pelvis
  19. branches of L & R renal arteries
    segmented->interlobar->arcuate->interlobular->afferent arterioles
  20. each nephron has one
    afferent arteriole
  21. _____ nerves regulate blood flow
  22. 3 urine processes
    • glomerule filtration
    • tubular re absorption
    • tubular secretion
  23. renal corpuscle
    • filters blood plasma, found in cortex
    • contains glomerular capsule
  24. cortical nephrons
    • majority of nephrons
    • short loops of henle
    • extend into outer region of medulla
  25. juxtamedullar nephron
    stimulate renin hormone production
  26. layers of renal corpuscle
    • visceral layer: has podocytes
    • parietal layer
    • mesangia cells
    • bowman's capsule
  27. macula densa
    • in between afferent and efferent arterioles
    • epithelial cells
    • part of ascending loop of henle
  28. glomerular filtrate
    • fluid that enters capsular space
    • 99% returned to blood plasma
  29. 3 barriers
    • 1. glomerular fenestrations
    • 2. fusal basal lamina of endothelium and podocytes
    • 3. pedicels of podocytes create filtration slits with slit diaphragms
  30. Net Filtration Pressure=
    glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure - capsular hydrostatic pressure - blood colloid osmotic presssure
  31. glomerular filtration rate
    amount of filtrate formed each minute
  32. proximal convoluted tubule
    • cells have microvilli that create brush border
    • largest amount of water and solute re absorption
  33. distal convoluted tubule
    major site where parathyroid hormone stimulates re absorption of Ca+
  34. principal cells
    • in collection ducts
    • receptors for antidiruretic hormone and aldosterone
    • reabsorb Na+, secrete K+
  35. intercalated cells
    • in collection ducts
    • role in blood pH
    • reabsorb K+ and HCO3- and secrete H+
  36. ADH
    controls levels H2O
  37. aldosterone
    controls levels of Na+
  38. when blood ____ or ____ decreases, _____ is decreased in afferent ______ of ______, stimulates ______ cells to secrete ______
    pressure, volume, pressure, arterioles, glomerulus, juxtamedullar, renin
  39. renin work
    • renin-->angiotensinogen (plasma protein)
    • ----------V-------------
    • angiotensin I <-- angiotensis converting enzyme
    • ----------V------------------
    • angiotensin II
  40. angiotensin II
    • vasoconstrict afferent arterioles: decrease filtration
    • sitmulates production of aldosterone: enhances reabsorption of Na+ and Cl-
  41. atrial natriuetic peptide
    • prevents reabsorption of water
    • suppresses secretion of ADH
  42. diabetes insipidis
    no ADH
  43. counter current exchange
    movement of water and solutes between loop of henle and blood
  44. blood urea nitrogen
    results from catabolism and deamination of amino acids
  45. plasma creatine
    catabolism of creatine phosphate in skel foundation
  46. loop diuretics
    inhibit Na+ symporters
  47. thiazide diuretics
    inhibit Na+ symporters in collecting duct
  48. treatment for kindey failure
    continusous dialysis, kidney replacment
  49. milliequivalance
    measure concentrations of ions in body fluids
  50. calcium
    • most abundant mineral
    • prathyroid and calcitonin
    • blood clotting, neurotransmitter
  51. magnesium:
    cofactor for some enzymes
  52. chloride:
    anion, travels w/ sodium
  53. bicarbonate
    • buffer
    • doesn't function well in resp. diseases
  54. phosphate
    • bones, teeth, ATP, nucleic acids
    • parathyroid and calcitrol
  55. potassium deficiency
    • shallow respiration
    • changes in elctrocardiogram
    • flattening of T wave
  56. excesss of K+
    • weakness
    • ventricular fibrillation
  57. buffer systems
    bind to H+, can also release it again
  58. normalizing blood pH
    respiratory compensation
  59. respiratory acidosis
    • too much CO2
    • to reverse: kidneys raise blood pH by eliminating H+
  60. respiratory alkilosis
    • not enough CO2
    • to reverse: breath into bag
  61. metabolic acidosis
    • low HCO3-
    • to reverse: hyperventilate
  62. metabolic alkalosis
    • to much HCO3-
    • to reverse: hypoventilation
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dog boy
2014-04-09 17:27:07
doy boy

dog boy
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