Dosage Forms and Routes of Administration

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  1. What do solid dosage forms include?
    Tablets, capsules, caplets, pulvules, suppositories and implants.
  2. Capsule
    Oblong gelatin shells filled with medication.
  3. Caplets
    oblong smooth tables
  4. Pulvules
    Capsules shaped different for identification purposes
  5. Suppository
    Medication prepared for insertion of the rectum or vagina that should be stored in the refrigerator.
  6. Implants
    Special capsules which act as contraceptives, implanted under the skin and left in place for yup to 5 years.  The drug is released i a stair step method releasing the highest amount of medication the first year then tapering down from there.
  7. What are tablets?
    One of the most common dosage forms available.  They vary in shape, size, and weight.
  8. What are the different ways a patient can take a tablet?
    They can be taken whole with water or some can be scored.  Which means they  they can be broken so the patient can take a partial dose if needed.  Only scored tablets should be divided.
  9. What are the 6 types of Tablets?
    Buccal, sublingual, chewable, effervescent, enteric-coated and troches and lozenges
  10. What are buccal tablets?
    These are tablets that dissolve slowly when placed between the cheek and gum.  The are absorbed into the blood stream without passing through the digestive tract.
  11. Sublingual Tablets
    Place under the tongue.
  12. chewable tablets
    Tablets that should be chewed if indicated usually are intended for children.
  13. Effervescent Tablets
    They contain a mixture of acid and sodium bicarbonates.  They should always be dissolved in a glass of water and never chewed or swallowed.  (Ex. Alka Seltzer)
  14. Enteric-coated Tablets
    Coated tablets to delay release of medication until it has reached the intestinal tract
  15. Troches and Lozenges
    These dissolve in the mouth providing medication to the mouth and throat.  These are similar to candy or cough drops.
  16. What are several liquid dosage forms?
    Solutions, suspensions, Elixirs, Reconstituted, and syrups
  17. What are the benefits of liquid dosage forms?
    Faster acting than solids, better for patients that have a hard time swallowing.  Flavoring agents can be added to improve the taste.
  18. Solutions
    A preparation in which a solid is dissolved in a liquid, usually water.
  19. Suspensions
    A very thick liquid in which the medication does not dissolve completely.  The particles settle to the bottom and you must shake the bottle well prior to dispensing. A "shake Well" auxiliary label should always be placed on the patients prescription bottle.
  20. Elixirs
    A clear sweet liquid with a combination of water and alcohol.
  21. Syrups
    Concentrated solutions of sugar in water.  The may also contain alcohol.
  22. Reconstituted Liquids
    A dry powder that requires you to add a certain amount of distilled water.Never use tap water this could lead to impurities and mineral salts reacting with the medication.  Many liquid antibiotics fall into this category.
  23. How do you add the water to reconstituted liquids? How they should be stored?
    A reconstituted device or graduate should be used to measure water.  The amount of water to be added should be confirmed by the pharmacist.  Medicine can e stored for 10-14 days and should be refrigerated.
  24. What are the types of topical dosage forms?
    Ointments, creams, lotions and transdermal patches.
  25. Ointments
    A greasy preparation with a petroleum jelly base which leaves an oily coating on the skin.  Ointments are stronger than creams and are used for treating more troublesome skin problems.
  26. Creams
    A combination of water, oil, and other substances.  The do no offer as much protection as ointments, but they appeal more to patients because the content is less greasy.
  27. Lotions
    Similar to creams, but they contain more liquid and are applied easier over larger areas of the body.
  28. Transdermal Patches
    Recently developed medicine that sticks to the skin with adhesives.  Medication is provided in patches like a Band-Aid, which is absorbed into the blood through the skin over a certain time period.
  29. 3 miscellaneous dosage forms are
    Aerosols, chewing gum and powders.
  30. Aerosols
    A sprayable product that provides medication to the respiratory tract or for the topical application to the skin.
  31. Chewing gum
    The most common example of this dosage form is nicorette gum.  It delivers nicotine to help people stop smoking.  As the gum is chewed the medication is released.
  32. Powders
    This dosage form can be used externally or internally.  External powders are sprinkled on the medicated area.  Internal powders dissolve in liquid prior to swallowing.
  33. What are some of the benefits of additives?
    They can add color for a better appearance and flavoring to cover the smell and taste.  They can use fillers to increase the size of small medications for easier handling. Preservatives maybe added to increase shelf life.
  34. What does the route of administration refer to?
    The method of getting the drug into the body
  35. What is the oral route of administration?
    TO deliver the drug through the mouth.  This is the safest and most common route.
  36. Describe the Sublingual route of administration?
    The tablet is placed under the tongue where it is dissolved and absorbed into the blood stream, bypassing the stomach for quicker relief.
  37. Describe the buccal route of administration?
    Tablets are placed inside the pouch of the cheek where the medication dissolves and is absorbed through the cheek lining.
  38. Describe the rectal route of administration.
    When the administration of the drug is applied on or into the rectum.  Suppositories or rectal creams may be used to treat a patient who is vomiting or can't take oral medication.  Directions for suppositories should be labeled insert.
  39. What are parenteral routs of administration?
    These are any medications that bypass the stomach and intestines.  The are injected into the skin.  They are used for patients that can't take oral medication or faster action is desired. These routes include IV, IM, SC, and ID.
  40. Explain IV administration.
    This is when the drug is administered directly into the vein, making this the fastest and most dangerous route of administration.  It goes directly into the blood stream, if dosing is to high it would be hard to reverse.
  41. Explain IM administration
    Injections are made directly into the muscle area such as the upper arm, thigh or buttocks. The drugs are absorbed from the muscle tissue into the blood stream. These are faster than oral drugs but slower than IV.
  42. Explain SC, SQ administration.
    These are made immediately under the skin. Insulin is one of the most common types of drugs administered this way.
  43. Explain the ID route of administration.
    These injections involve only the top layer of skin.  This route is used to administer drugs for skin testing such as tuberculosis.
  44. Explain the transdermal patch.
    A medicated patch place on the skin for regular and continued delivery of a drug that is absorbed into the blood.  These are convenient and available to use for a variety of conditions.
  45. Topical Administraion
    Administration of the medication to the surface of the skin.  Directions should be labeled apply.
  46. Nasal Administration
    Administered into the nostrils by the nasal routes.  Most are sprays used to treat colds and allergies.
  47. Inhalation Administration
    drugs inhaled through the mouth into the lungs.  Used to treat asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema using an MDI.  These should be labeled inhale and the container should be shaken well.
  48. Ophthalmic Route
    Administered into the eye.  Medication should be kept sterile.  Eye medication can sometimes be used for the ear but ear medications can't be used for the eyes.  Should be labelled instill.
  49. Otic route
    These drugs are administered into the ear canal.  Usually used to treat ear infections and ear wax build up.  Labeled instill
Card Set:
Dosage Forms and Routes of Administration
2014-04-15 17:55:49
drugs dosageforms
Pharm Tech
Dosage forms and routes of administration chapter 3
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