SOCI 1125

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SOCI 1125
2014-04-09 16:17:35

Sexuality and Gender
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  1. John Money
    • Psychologist
    • Driving force behind the creation of the world's first sex-change clinic
  2. Intersexed
    babies born with ambiguous genital because of a hormone imbalance in the womb or some other cause
  3. Sex
    Depends on whether you were born with distinct male or female genitals
  4. Gender
    Sense of being male or female and your playing masculine and feminine roles in ways defined as appropriate by culture/society
  5. Gender Identity
    A person's identification with, or sense of belonging to, a particular sex:Bio-psycho-socially
  6. Social learning of Gender
    • Social Learning of gender is difficult to undo
    • Develop a sense between ages 2 and 3
  7. heterosexuality
    Prefence for members of the opposite group
  8. essentialism
    school of thought that views gender differnces as a reflection of biological differences between women and men
  9. social constructionism
    School of thought that views gender differences as a reflection of the different social positions occupied by women and men
  10. Essentialism
    Gender differnces in behaviour are based in biological differences between women and men
  11. Functionalism and Essentialism
    learning the essential features of femininty and masculinity integrates society and allows it to function properly
  12. (4 main) criticisms of essentialism from the conflict and feminist perspective
    • 1. they ignore the historical and cultural variability of gender and sexuality
    • 2. Essentialism generalizes from the average, ignoring variations within gender groups
    • 3. Little or no directs evidence directly supports the essentialists major claims
    • 4. Their explanations for gender differences ignore the role of power
  13. gender Ideology
    A set of ideas about what constitutes appropriate masculine and feminine roles and behaviours
  14. Gender and Conflict perspective
    • Argues root of male domination located in class inequality
    • Suggests men gained substantial power over women when preliterate societies first able to produce surplus over which men gained control
    • Two means devised to ensure men’s offspring received inheritance of economic surplus:
    • i.Imposing rule that only men could own property
    • ii.Using socialization and force to ensure women remained sexually faithful to husbands
    • Male domination intensified with industrial capitalism
  15. Gender & Feminist perspective
    • Argues male domination rooted in the following:
    • i.Patriarchal authority relations
    • ii.Family structures
    • iii.Patterns of socialization and culture that exist in most societies
    • Both conflict and feminist perspectives view explanations for gender by functionalists, sociobiologists, and evolutionary psychologists as rationalizations for male domination and sexual aggression
  16. Gender Socialization
    • Are various ways in which meaning of gender taught through gender socialization:
    • 1.Toys marketed in childhood: Girls’ toys stress nurturing, physical attractiveness, and indoor activities, while boys’ toys stress aggression, competition, spatial manipulation, and outdoor activities ð Examples:
    • Barbie doll: Conveys ideal woman defined primarily by her attractiveness to men through doll’s large-breasted, small-waisted body shape
    • GI Joe: Rugged and macho appearance teaches stereotypical male role
  17. Glass ceiling
    Social barrier that makes it difficult for women to rise to the top level of management
  18. Transgendered
    People defy societies gender norms and blur wideley accepted gender roles
  19. Transsexuals
    Those who alter their gender
  20. Heterosexual