Sociology Chapter 8
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What is social inequality?
Situation where members of society have different amounts of wealth, prestige, or power
What is stratification?
Structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in a society
What is income?
Salaries and wages
What is wealth?
inclusive term encompassing all a person's material assets
What are the 4 general systems of stratification?
4. Social classes
What is slavery?
Individuals owned by other people, who treat them as property
Is there more people enslaved today than in world history?
What is castes?
Hereditary ranks usually religiously dictated and tend to be fixed and immobile
Generally associated with Hinduism in India
What is estates (feudalism)?
Peasants worked land leased to them in exchange for military protection and other services
What is class system?
Social ranking based primarily on economic position in which achieved characteristics can influence social mobility
Rossides uses five-class model to describe U.S. class system they are?
1. Upper class
2. Upper-middle class
3. Lower-middles class
4. Working class
5. Lower class
Upper class makes what percent of the U.S. population?
Lower class makes up what percent of the U.S. population?
20 to 25%
Upper middle class makes up what percent of the U.S. population?
10% to 15%
Lower middle class makes up what percent of the U.S. population?
30 to 35%
What 4 factors contribute to shrinking size of middle class?
1. Disappearing opportunities for those with little education
2. Global competition and advances in technology
3. Growing dependence on temporary workforce
4. Rise of new growth industries and nonunion workplaces
Working class makes up what percent of the population?
40 to 45%
People who hold regular manual or blue-collar jobs
What is class warfare?
Gulf between rich and everyone else in U.S. grew over last 50 years
What is Karl Marx's view of class differentiation?
Social relations depend on who controls the primary mode of production
What is capitalism? (part of Karl Marx's view of Class Differentiation)
Means of production held largely in private hands and main incentive for economic activity is accumulation of profits
What is Bourgeoisie? (part of Karl Marx's view of class differentiation)
Capitalistic class; owns the means of production
What is proletariat?
What is class consciousness? (part of Karl Marx's view of class differentiation)
Subjective awareness of common vested interests and the need for collective political action to bring about change
What is false consciousness? (Part of Karl Marx's view of class differentiation)
attitude held by members of class that does not accurately reflect their objective position
What is Max Weber's view of stratification?
No single characteristic totally defines a person's position within the stratification system
What is the stratification system? (Marx Weber's view of stratification)
2. Status group
What is class?
Group of people who have similar level of wealth and income
What is status group?
People who have the same prestige or lifestyle
What is power?
Ability to exercise one's will over others
What are interactionists interested in?
In the importance of social class in shaping a person's lifestyle
What is veblen?
Top of the social hierarchy typically convert part of their wealth into conspicuous
What is consumption?
purchase goods not to survive but to flaunt their superior wealth and social standing
What is the functionalist view on stratification?
Social inequality is necessary so people will be motivated to fill functionally important positions
What is the conflict view of stratification?
Human beings prone to conflict over scarce resources such as wealth, status, and power
Stratification major source of societal tension
Leads to instability and social change
What is dominant ideology?
Set of cultural beliefs and practices that helps to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests
What is Lenski's viewpoint of statification?
As a society advances technologically, it becomes capable of producing surplus of goods
Emergence of surplus resources expands possibilities for inequality
Allocation of surplus goods and services reinforces social inequality
What is objective method?
Class largely viewed as a statistical category
occupation, income, education, place of residence
What is prestige?
Respect and admiration an occupation holds in society
What is esteem?
Reputation a specific person has earned within an occupation
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