CONTENT BIO 8 ORGANISM

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shockwave
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269959
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CONTENT BIO 8 ORGANISM
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2014-04-10 00:12:55
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CONTENT BIO ORGANISM
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CONTENT BIO 8 ORGANISM
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  1. DEFINE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE FEEDBACK LOOPS.
    • POSITIVE...AMPLIFICATION. WHEN YOU WANT SOMETHING QUICKLY. DOESN'T LAST LONG.
    • EX: FRIUT RIPENING

    • NEGATIVE..STABILIZATION
    • EX:TEMP REG

    MISTAKES IN THE LOOP ARE KNOWN AS ALTERATIONS.

  2. WHERE DOES INSULIN COME FROM?
    PANCREASE. REGULATES BLOOD SUGAR CONTENT. 

    BETA CELLS IN THE PANCREASE PRODUCE INSULIN WHEN BLOOD SUGAR IS HIGH. TELLS BODY TO STORE IT. (LIVER AND CELLS)

    ALPHA CELLS PRODUCE GLUCAGON. TELLS LIVER TO FREE UP GLYCOGEN.

    ITS A NEGATIVE FEEDBACK AND STABLIZES BLOOD SUGAR LEVEL.

     

  3. NAME THE 5 LAYERS 
    • A. OUTER BARK
    • B. INNER BARK (PHLOEM)
    • C. CAMBIUM CELL LAYER
    • D. SAPWOOD
    • E. HARTWOOD
  4. The _____ ______ is the tree’s protection from the outside world. Continually renewed from within, it helps keep out moisture in the rain, and prevents the tree from losing moisture when the air is dry. It insulates against cold and
    • OUTER BARK 
    • (A)
  5. __________ ______  pipeline through which food is passed to the rest of the tree. It lives for only a short time, then dies and turns to cork to become part of the protective outer bark.
    • INNER BARK OR PHLOEM (B)
  6. The _______ ______ is the growing part of the trunk. It annually produces new bark and new wood in response to hormones that pass down through the phloem with food from the leaves. These hormones, called “auxins”, stimulate growth in cells.
    Auxins are produced by leaf buds at the ends of branches as soon as they start growing in spring.
    • CAMBIUM CELL LAYER (C)
  7. ____________ is the tree’s pipeline for water moving up to the leaves. Sapwood is new wood. As newer rings of sapwood are laid down, inner cells lose their vitality and turn to heartwood.
    • SAPWOOD (D)
  8. ____________  supporting pillar of the tree. Although dead, it will not decay or lose strength while the outer layers are intact. A composite of hollow, needlelike cellulose fibers bound together by a chemical glue called lignin, it is in many ways as strong as steel. A piece 12" long and 1" by 2" in cross section set vertically can support a weight of twenty tons!
    • HARTWOOD (E) 
  9. In ferns, the joining of egg and sperm produces a zygote, which will grow into the_____.
    • In ferns, the mature diploid plant is called a sporophyte.
    • Sporophytes undergo meiosis to produce spores, which develop into gametophytes, which produce gametes.
  10. DEFINE ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS.
    Alternation of generations means the alternation between the diploid and haploid phases in plants. 

    EX: Ferns that have a large diploid and a diminutive haploid stage
  11. The structures composed solely of diploid cells
    3, 4, and 5

    the anthers house the male gametophytes (which produce sperm) and the pistils house the female gametophytes (which produce eggs). Eggs and sperm are haploid. All other tissues are solely diploid.

  12. T OR F 
    Eggs and sperm are haploid. All other tissues are solely diploid. USUALLY.
    TRUE
  13. Auxins are plant hormones that are involved in all but which of the following processes?
    a. Fruit ripening
    b. Gravitropism
    c. Growth
    d. Phototropism
    e. Seed germination
    A: The plant hormone ethylene is responsible for fruit ripening. Auxins are involved in a range of processes involving growth and developmen
  14. IF A FLOWER WAS DAY-NEUTRAL HOW CAN YOU KNOW IT OFF IT'S CYCLE?

    A. MESS WITH THE LIGHT/DARK IT GETS
    B. TEMPERATURE
    • B. TEMPERATURE. 
    • IT'S DAY-NEUTRAL, LIGHT DOESN'T PLAY A HEAVY ROLL.
  15. What plant hormones is most likely to delay aging when sprayed on cut flowers and fruit? a. Ethylene
    b. Gibberellins
    c. Cytokinins
    d. Abscisic acid
    C: Cytokinins stimulate cell division (cytokinesis) and have been found to delay senescence (aging). They are often sprayed on cut flowers and fruit to prolong their shelf life
  16. When Ca2+ channels open in a presynaptic cell WHAT HAPPENS?
    When Ca2+ channels open, calcium enters the axon terminal and causes synaptic vesicles to release neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft.

  17. Increased nursing stimulates increased milk production in mammary glands...POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE FEEDBACK?
    POSITIVE. 

    • In a positive feedback loop, an action intensifies a chain of events that, in turn, intensify the conditions that caused the action beyond normal limits. Nursing stimulates lactation, which promotes nursing.
    • Contractions during childbirth, psychological hysteria, and sexual orgasm are all examples of positive feedback.
  18. Which hormone is not secreted by a gland in the brain?
    a. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
    b. Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
    c. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
    d. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
    A: HCG is secreted by the trophoblast, part of the early embryo, following implantation in the uterus.
  19. WHAT HORMONE ?
    stimulates maturation of the ovarian follicle and estrogen
    production in females and sperm production in males.
    • FSH
    • (follicle-stimulating hormone)
    • secreted by the pituitary gland.
  20. WHAT HORMONE?
    stimulates ovulation and the production of estrogen and progesterone by the ovary in females, and testosterone production in males. 
    • LH (luteinizing hormone  
    • secreted by the pituitary gland.
  21. WHAT HORMONE?
     STIMULATES THE PRODUCTION OF
    LH (luteinizing hormone) 
    and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone)
    • GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone)
    • secreted by the hypothalamus
  22. Which hormone is secreted by the placenta throughout pregnancy?
    a. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
    b. Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
    c. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
    d. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
    e. None of these
    E: The placenta secretes progesterone and estrogen once a pregnancy is established. Early in pregnancy, the placenta secretes Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG).
  23. Polar bodies are a by-product of
    a. Meiosis I
    b. Meiosis II
    c. Both meiosis I and II
    d. Zygote formation
    e. Mitosis of the morula
    C: In oogenesis, meiosis I produces a secondary oocyte and a polar body. Both the first polar body and the secondary oocyte undergo meiosis II. The secondary oocyte divides to produce the ovum and the second polar body. Results in 1 oocyte and 3 polar bodies.

  24. Which of the following hormones triggers ovulation in females?
    a. Estrogen
    b. Progesterone
    c. Serotonin
    d. Luteinizing hormone
    D: Positive feedback from rising levels of estrogen in the menstrual cycle produces a sudden surge of luteinizing hormone (LH). This high level triggers ovulation.
  25. Spermatogenesis occurs in the ________.
    Seminiferous tubules.

    • The testes contain hundreds of seminiferous tubules for the production of sperm, or spermatogenesis.
    • This requires 64-72 days.
    • Leydig cells surround the seminiferous tubules and produce male sex hormones called androgens, the most important of which is testosterone.
    • Semen is made in the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and other glands.
    • Sperm are transferred to the penis via the epididymis, where they become motile, and thence through the vas deferens.

  26. In birds, gastrulation occurs along the _____ _____.
    In birds, the invagination of gastrulation occurs along a line called a primitive streak. Cells migrate to the primitive streak, and the embryo becomes elongated.

  27. In snapdragons, the red (R) allele is incompletely dominant to the white (r) allele. If you saw a pink snapdragon, you would know WHAT ABOUT ITS GENOTYPE.
    You would know the snapdragon has an Rr genotype, but you would not know whether its parents had an Rr genotype or a combination of Rr and rr or RR and rr
  28. DEFINE Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment
    • allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes. This means that traits are transmitted to offspring independently of one another.
  29. T OR F 
    Linked genes do not follow the law of independent assortment because they are too close together to be segregated from each other in meiosis.
    • TRUE 
    • Two genes next to, or within a specified close distance of each other, are said to be linked.
  30. In humans, more than one gene contributes to the trait of hair color. This is an example of
    a. Pleiotropy
    b. Polygenic inheritance
    c. Codominance
    d. Linkage
    e. Epistasis
    B: When more than one gene contributes to a trait, inheritance of that trait is said to be polygenic. This type of inheritance does not follow the rules of Mendelian genetics.
  31. WHAT THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 
    Pleiotropy AND Polygenic inheritance
    Pleiotropy occurs when one gene influences multiple, seemingly unrelated phenotypic traits, an example being phenylketonuria, which is a human disease that affects multiple systems but is caused by one gene defect.

    Polygenic inheritance refers to inheritance of a phenotypic characteristic (trait) that is attributable to two or more genes and can be measured quantitatively. Multifactorial inheritance refers to polygenic inheritance that also includes interactions with the environment.

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