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  1. what are the unique characteristics of the cervical vertebrae
    transverse foramina, bifid spinous process tips  and overlapping vertebral bodies
  2. what is the hole in the transverse process called
    transverse foramina
  3. how can you visualize the apophyseal joints in c2-c7
    with the neck at a lateral position or 90 deg angle to the MSP
  4. how are the apophyseal joints seen on c1 and c2
    on an ap open mouth projection
  5. the intervertebral formina are best seen how
    and how is the foramina made
    • they are created by the roofs of the pedicles
    • and are seen when the c spine is rotated 45 deg with 15 deg cephalad angle
  6. what is the first cervical vertebrae known as
    the atlas
  7. the dens or odontoid process is part of what vertebrae
    c2 or axis
  8. what are the lateral masses on c1
    they are areas of the bone between the superior and inferior articular processes the support the weight of the head and asiist in rotation
  9. what type of trauma can cause severe fracture of the dens/odontoid process
    whiplash from a car accident forced flexion-hyperextension
  10. what joint makes up the articulation of c1 and c2
    atlantoaxial joint
  11. the lpo position of the cervical spine shows what structure and on what side
    • intervertebral foramina
    • foramina on the right side
  12. the side _____ from the IR in the obliques of the c spine show the foramina
    whats the angle
    • farthest
    • lpo = means it visualizes the right upside foramina
    • rpo = visualizes the left upside foramina
    • 15 cephalad
  13. if you were to do an oblique anteriorly the side ______ to the IR opens what joints of the cspine
    RAO and LAO
    what is the tube angle
    • closest
    • LAO = left downside formaina
    • RAO = right downside foramina
    • 15 deg caudad
  14. for trauma patients what is crucial that we do not do
    do not remove the cervical collar and do not move their head or neck until authorized by a physician who has evaluated the horizontal beam lateral image
  15. where is cr for a cervicothoracic simmers lateral position cervical spine
    what is the breathing
    what does this visualize
    • CR at t1 1 inch above level of jugular notch
    • suspend respiration on full expiration or optional breathing method
    • c7 and t1
  16. what structures must we ensure are perpendicular to the table on an ap open mouth
    lower margin of upper incisors to the base of the skull(mastoid tips)
  17. where is the cr for an open mouth
    when the patient is instructed to open the mouth only _____ should move
    • in the middle
    • the lower jaw
  18. if we cannot see the upper dens in the ap open mouth what is the alternative
    fuchs or judd methosd
  19. if the base of the skull is superimposed on the upper dens what sohuld you do 2 things
    reposition using a bit of hyperflexion on the neck or angle the tube slightly 5 deg caudal
  20. the ap axial projection cervical spine is used to visualize pathology of what vertbra
    what structures are per and parallel to the tube on this projection
    • c3-c7-12
    • lower margin of upper incisors to the base of the skull (mastoid tips) perp to ir
    • line from tip of mandible to base of skull is parallel to cr
  21. what is cr angle of for an ap axial projection cervical spine
    where is the cr
    • 15-20 deg cephalad
    • cr to enter at level of the lwoer margin of thyroid cartilage to pass thru c4
  22. what is the breathing for an ap axial cerv spine
    patient should not _____ during this breathing
    • suspend respiration
    • swallow
  23. when the patient is supine and erect how much do we angle the tube for each in ap axial cerv spine
    • supine 15 deg caudal or when there is less lordotic curvature
    • erect 20 deg caudal or more lordotic curvature is present
  24. why are anterior oobliques preferred over posterior obliques
    anterior obliques in reltation to the neck provide less radiation dose to the thyroid
  25. what sid is recommened for the obliques of the spine
    what is the degre of obliquity in this position of the spine
    • 40-72 but 72 the farther is better
    • 45 deg
  26. in the oblique positioning of the neck what can we ask the patient to do to prevent superimposition of the mandible on the vertebrae
    ask patient to protract their chin forward
  27. what is the cr angle, positions, and cr location for anterior obliques and posterior obliques of the spine
    what is the breathing
    • 15 deg caudal @ c4 for anterior obliques RAO and LAO
    • 15 deg cephald @ c4 for posterior obliques LPO and RPO
    • suspend respiration
  28. what structures are shown in the oblique positioning of the cerv spine
    intervertebral foramina of c2-c7
  29. what is the SID for an erect lateral c spine
    72 in
  30. what is the position of the shoulders and chin in a lateral c spine
    • relax and drop shoulders down and forward as much as possible
    • and prtract the chin (prevents superimposition of the mandible)
  31. where is the cr for a lateral c-spine
    cr @ c4 level of adams apple or upper margin of thyroid cartilage
  32. what is the breatihng for a lateral c spine amd why a 72 sid
    what can be used to keep the shoulders down in this projection
    • suspend respiration on full expiration (for maximum shoulder pression)
    • long sid to compensate for increase OID
    • 5-10 lb weights suspended from the wrists
  33. what structures are visible in the lateral position of the c spine
    what do you you do if you cannot see t1 and c7
    • zygo joints c1-c7 -t1
    • do a cervicothoracic prjection swimmers method
  34. where is the cr for a lateral cspine horizontal beam
    what structure is this cr above
    what is the breathing
    • cr @ c4 at leve of upper thyroid cartilage margin
    • 1-2 in above EAM
    • same as lateral (full expiration)
  35. should u use a grid on a gorizontal beam lateral position of cpsin
    if the patient is average size no  bigger patient use a grid to compensate the air gap
  36. in an ap axial position of the cervical spine what can we do open up the lower intervertebral spaces
    angle tube 20 cephalad
  37. on an oblique postion of the cervical spine what structure is best visualized at c1
    posterior arch and tubercle of c1
  38. how many foramina are in each c spine
    3 (2 on transvers one vertebral)
  39. what is column of bone located posterior to the transverse process at junction of pedicle and lamina on a lateral view of the c spine and is mainly between the inferior and superior articular process
    articular pillar or lateral mass
  40. the intervertebral foramina are directed at what angle because of the shape of the bone
    15 deg angle
  41. instead of the two lamina on the sides of a spinous process o na regular vertebrae what is located here and which vertebrae
    • posterior archs c1
    • c3-c6 have lamina
  42. how are the occipitoatlanto joints formed
    between the articulations of c1 and the occipital condyles of the skull
  43. the gonion is at level of ____
    the mastoid tip is at the level of ____
    • c3
    • c1
  44. the thyroid cartilage is at the level of ____
  45. a patient with possible cervical spine injury enters the emergency room and is lying on a backboard. which projection is first to be taken
    lateral crosstable xray
  46. what projections are needed to rule out mobility of the neck due to a whiplash injury from a car accident
    lateral positions hyperflexion and hyperextension
  47. a radiograph of an rpo cervical spine reveals that the lower intervertebral foramina are not open but the upper intervertebral foramina are well visualized. what is the error located here?
    the patient was not obliqued enough to a 45 degree angle the whole body must be 45 deg
  48. a radiograph of an ap wagging or otonello method reveals that the mandible is still visible and obscuring the upper thoracic vertebrae (dens)
    tech factors used:
    40 sid
    75 kvp
    20 mas
    .5 seconds
    the exposure time is too short the mas needs to be lowered and use a longer exposure time to allow more blurring of the mandible to see the dens
  49. what is the ring or arch of bone that extends posteriorly from the vertebral body
    vertebral arch
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