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Describe the 3 processes necessary to the establishment and maintenance of Long
- Encoding - the process by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into and enduring memory
- Storage - the process of maintaining information in memory over time
the process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored.
Define elaborative encoding in your own words and create an example.
it is the act of taking new information, or memories, and making it match existing memories or information...
- such as driving a new car might be different from your last car, but can quickly be related.
- Or when arriving at a new post, actively relating our purpose, to what similar post have us do.
Describe how deeper levels of processing produce better memory and relate levels
of processing to elaborative encoding.
the deeper the process of encoding, such as semantic judgments, the higher level of brain activity and more links (associations) between Nodes (concepts) are formed, and stronger links (associations) made.
the same process happens during elaborative encoding. where not only more links made, but strong links are made
Describe how elaborative encoding is related to levels of processing
- in each of the levels of processing, we are relating the thing we are processing against a something we already know... so in structural, we relate it to appearance of the of the word, in phonemic we relate it to words it sounds, rhymes, or has a root with. and in semantics we actively make links with other nodes
- Structural processing (appearance) which is when we encode only the physical qualities of something.
- Phonemic processing – which is when we encode its sound.
- Semantic processing, which happens when we encode the meaning of a word and relate it to similar words with similar meaning.
Describe how visual imagery encoding influences memory
when you attach a memory, to a picture of something that you know or see.
Such as attaching a name with a face.
also closing your eyes after an incident to remember key items... Example: Miguel Closing his eyes after the bank robbery to remember key pieces of information, such as the suspects description and direction he ran off.
Describe the three-stage memory model by Atkinson and Shiffrin noting how each component interacts with other components (Figure 6.7)
- Senory input (visual, audio, smell, etc): enters ->
- Senory Memory: information is then either ignore the information, or we process it to become ->
- Short Term Memory: we then encode information through rehearsal to use it, such as looking up a phone number. we either forget the information after a brief time, or after enough rehearsal we encode and store the information to ->
- Long Term Memory: information can be lost, or if needed, we can retrieve this information and send it back to ->
- Short-Term memory/working memory
Describe the characteristics of sensory, short term, and long term memory in
terms of duration and capacity
- Sensory Memory: the memory of stimuli entering our senses. lasting less than a second, we can recall up to 12 items in our sensory memory
- short Term Memory: lasts between 15-30 seconds if there is no rehearsal. without the use of chunking or other devises, we can remember up to 7 items in out STM
- Long Term Memory: Last indefinitely, and there are no known limits of capacity.
Describe Sperling’s use of whole report and partial report to study sensory
when a grid of 12 letters is flashed on the screen for a 1/20 of a second
- people couldn't remember that many,
- but when ask to recall a row, people can do it accurately
- iconic memory (visual sensory memory)stores the whole grid, but fades away too quickly
Describe the difference between iconic and echoic sensory memory
- both are Sensory memory
- Iconic: Visual sensory memory (think Eye (phonetically)
- echoic: Auditory sensory memory (think echo)
Recite the definition of maintenance rehearsal and describe what it does for one of the memory storage systems
Rehearsal: the process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it
Such as closing your eyes to repeat the image again and again in your mind, or repeating a phone number over and over so you don't forget it.
Describe the difference between retrograde and anterograde amnesia
- Retrograde Amnesia: the inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a particular date, usually the date of an injury or operation. (think Retro)... standard tv amnesia
- Anterograde Amnesia: the inability to transfer new information from the short-term store into the long-term store. (think of that crappy Adam sandler/drew berrymore movie 50 first dates
Recite the definition of chunking and describe its function for one of the memory storage systems
- Chunking: Combining small pieces of information into a larger cluster or chunk that is more easily held in short term memory
- ... such as puting digits into phone number (805)... 717-37-52 as opposed to 8057173752 is harder for people to verbally understand
the function is to give the mind less to remember (since STM
remembers 7 items), each chunk of information equals about 1 part
Describe the encoding specificity principle and be able to recognize an example of it at work
- Encoding Specificity principle: the idea that a retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps re-create the specific way in which information was initially encoded.
- Example: a hint, allows someone to remember the full answer... or an place or context, allows you to remember a person or a name that you couldn't previously remember...
it is the idea of your brain connecting links to get to nodes.
Describe the difference between implicit and explicit memory and be able to recognize examples of each.
- Implicit memory: The influence of past experiences on later behavior, even without effort to remember them or an awareness of the recollection. (Implied memory!)
- Example: driving a car is hard to learn, but becomes second nature
- Explicit Memory: The act of consciously or intentionally retrieving past experiences.
- Example: trying to remember Facts, like taking a test, or trying to remember a vacation.
Recite two types of implicit memory and be able to recognize examples of each.
- procedural memory: the gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice or "knowing how" to do things. (muscle memory)
- Example: driving a car, playing a piano, etc. becomes second nature after practicing.
- Priming: an enhanced ability to think of a stimulus, such as a word or object, as a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus (fill in the blank tests)
- Example: missing spelling mistakes when reading something, because your brain automatically corrects them
Recite two types of explicit memory and be able to recognize examples of each.
- Semantic memory: a network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world.
- (General knowledge or facts, such as "who is the current president?")
- example: taking a test, we have to recall things we study
- Episodic Memory: the collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place.
- (mental time travel)
- example: remembering a family vacation, a first kiss, an embarrassing moment, proud moment, etc.
Describe long term potentiation and why it is so important to memory
- Long term Potentiation (LTP): a process whereby communication across the synapse between neurons strengthens the connection, making further communication easier.
- (the more neurons communicate, the stronger the connection becomes: making it faster and easier to communicate in the future)
- Example: it is a form of Implicit memory. the more a person drives a car, plays a piano, the act becomes a procedural memory
Describe the findings from Tolman’s study focusing on details of methods and results
(Rats, maps, and mazes!)
In Tolmans study, he had groups of rats run mazes, tested over a series of days. group 1 was rewarded each day, a group 2 was rewarded nothing until the 10 day, and group 3 was rewarded nothing
- what the study found was that, while the group that was rewarded group 1 quickly and steadily learned the maze with less errors each day.
- while group 2 didn't start to learn the maze until day 11- 13, and then ran the maze as good as group 1... implying that even though they didn't seem to apply the knowledge before the reward, their brain did in fact learn.
- group 3 didn't learn the maze.
- the second study was to find out if the rats had spatial orientations... and what they found was that most rats had a general sense of space. and would run a maze in the quickest spacial way.
Describe the findings from Rosenthal’s and Jacobsen’s study focusing on details of methods and results.
- in Rosenthals and Jacobsen study:
- The Students that had higher expectations at the beginning of the year from the teacher (through false reporting of test scores) performed better and learned more at the end of the year.
- and Students that had lower expectations performed worse
- however, worked with 1st and 2nd graders... older students were more stable