Oper3100 Exam4

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Oper3100 Exam4
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Operations Management Exam
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Operations Exam 4
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  1. The philosophical leaders of the quality movement, Philip Crosby, W. Edwards Deming, and Joseph M. Juran had the same general message about what it took to achieve outstanding quality. Which of the following was not part of the message?


    A. Quality is free
    B. Leadership from senior management C. Customer focus
    D. Total involvement of the workforce E. Continuous improvement
    Quality is free

    p. 287 The philosophical leaders of the quality movement, notably Philip Crosby, W. Edwards Deming, and Joseph M. Juran had slightly different definitions of what quality is and how to achieve it, but they all had the same general message: To achieve outstanding quality requires quality leadership from senior management, a customer focus, total involvement of the workforce, and continuous improvement based upon rigorous analysis of processes.
  2. The philosophical leaders of the quality movement, Philip Crosby, W. Edwards Deming, and Joseph M. Juran had the same general message about what it took to achieve outstanding quality. Which of the following was part of the message?
    • Customer focus
    • p.287

    The philosophical leaders of the quality movement, notably Philip Crosby, W. Edwards Deming, and Joseph M. Juran had slightly different definitions of what quality is and how to achieve it, but they all had the same general message: To achieve outstanding quality requires quality leadership from senior management, a customer focus, total involvement of the workforce, and continuous improvement based upon rigorous analysis of processes.

  3. 56.An analytical tool used in six-sigma quality improvement programs is which of the following?
    •  Checksheets
    • p. 293 The tools common to all quality efforts, including Six Sigma, are flowcharts, run charts, Pareto charts, histograms, checksheets, cause-and-effect diagrams, and control charts.
  4. Which of the following is not an analytical tool used in six-sigma quality improvement programs? 
    (p. 293)

    A. Run charts
    B. Pass charts
    C. Cause-and-effect diagrams D. Flowcharts
    E. Pareto charts
    Pass Charts

    p.293 The tools common to all quality efforts, including Six Sigma, are flowcharts, run charts, Pareto charts, histograms, checksheets, cause-and-effect diagrams, and control charts.
  5. A flow chart as part of a six-sigma quality improvement process might be found in which DMAIC
    (p. 292)
    category?
    Define

    p. 292 Flowcharts. There are many types of flow charts. The one shown in Exhibit 9.5 depicts the process steps as part of a SIPOC analysis. SIPOC in essence is a formalized input-output model, used in the define stage of a project. (See also exhibit 9.5)
  6. A fishbone diagram as part of a six-sigma quality improvement process might be found in which DMAIC category?
    • Analyze
    • p.293 Cause-and-effect diagrams, also called fishbone diagrams, they show hypothesized relationships between potential causes and the problem under study. Once the diagram is constructed, the analysis would proceed to find out which of the potential causes were in fact contributing to the problem. (See also exhibit 9.5)
    •  
  7. An opportunity flow diagram as part of a six-sigma quality improvement process might be found in which DMAIC category?
    • Improve 
    • p.293 Opportunity flow diagram. This is used to separate value-added from non-value-added steps in a process. (See also Exhibit 9.5)
  8. 61.A Pareto chart as part of a six-sigma quality improvement process might be found in which DMAIC category?
    • Measure
    • p.293 Pareto charts help to break down a problem into the relative contributions of its components. (See also Exhibit 9.5)
  9. Which of the following is an analytical tool used in six-sigma quality improvement programs?
    • Pareto Charts
    • p.293 

    The tools common to all quality efforts, including Six Sigma, are flowcharts, run charts, Pareto charts, histograms, checksheets, cause-and-effect diagrams, and control charts.
  10. Which of the following is not an analytical tool used in six-sigma quality improvement programs?
    • Shengo diagrams
    • p.293 

    The tools common to all quality efforts, including Six Sigma, are flowcharts, run charts, Pareto charts, histograms, checksheets, cause-and-effect diagrams, and control charts.
  11. Failure mode and effect analysis is used in six-sigma projects. It involves which of the following? 
    (p. 293- 296)
     
    • Calculating a risk priority number for each possible failure
    • p.293-296 Failure mode and effect analysis is a structured approach to identify, estimate, prioritize, and evaluate risk of possible failures at each stage of a process. It begins with identifying each element, assembly, or part of the process and listing the potential failure modes, potential causes, and effects of each failure. A risk priority number (RPN) is calculated for each failure mode.
    •  
  12. Design of experiments is a statistical methodology often used in six-sigma projects. It aims to accomplish which of the following?
    • Determine the cause and effect relationships between process variables and output
    • p.296 Design of experiments is a statistical methodology used for determining the cause-and-effect relationship between process variables and the output variable. In contrast to standard statistical tests, which require changing each individual variable to determine the most influential one, DOE permits experimentation with many variables simultaneously through carefully selecting a subset of them.
  13. The Malcolm Baldrige award selection process helps improve quality and productivity by which of the following means?
    • Providing feedback to applicants by the examiners
    • p. 286 The president of the United States traditionally presents the Awards at a special ceremony in Washington, DC. A major benefit to all applicants is the feedback report prepared by examiners that is based on their processes and practices.
    •  
  14. 67.Which of the following are eligible companies to be considered for the Baldrige award? 
    (p. 286)
     
    • Auditing firms
    • p.286 Three Awards may be given annually in each of these categories: manufacturing, service, small business, education, health care, and nonprofit.
    •  
  15. Which of the following are not eligible to be considered for the Baldrige Award? 
    (p. 286)


    A. Small businesses
    B. Health care organizations
    C. Educational institutions
    D. State highway patrol organizations E. Nuclear power plants
    • State highway patrol organizations
    • p.286 Three Awards may be given annually in each of these categories: manufacturing, service, small business, education, health care, and nonprofit.
    •  
  16. The primary purpose of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award is which of the following? 
    (p. 287)
     
    • To help companies review and structure their quality programs
    • p.287 Department of Commerce establishing the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award in 1987 to help companies review and structure their quality programs.
  17. Applicants for the Baldrige Award for total quality management must submit an application of 50 pages or less that details the processes and results of their activities under seven major categories. Which of the following is one of those categories?
    • Analysis and knowledge management
    • p.287 Applicants for the Award must submit an application of 50 pages or less that details the processes and results of their activities under seven major categories: Leadership; Strategic Planning; Customer and Market Focus; Measurement, Analysis and Knowledge Management; Workforce Focus; Process Management; and Results.
    •  

  18. 71.The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award is given to organizations that have done which of the following?
    • Demonstrated outstanding quality in their products and processes.
    • p.286 The Award is given to organizations that have demonstrated outstanding quality in their products and processes.
    •  
  19. 72.Which of the following is not a category reported in applying for the Baldrige Award? 
    (p. 286)

    A. Corporate leadership
    B. Use of statistical quality control tools C. Business results
    D. Consumer and market focus
    E. Strategic planning
    • Use of statistical quality control tools
    • p.286 

    Applicants for the Award must submit an application of 50 pages or less that details the processes and results of their activities under seven major categories: Leadership; Strategic Planning; Customer and Market Focus; Measurement, Analysis and Knowledge Management; Workforce Focus; Process Management; and Results.
  20. The dimension of design quality that concerns the sensory characteristics of the product is which of the
    (p. 288)
    following?
    • Aesthetics 
    • p.288 Exhibit 9.2: "The Dimensions of Design Quality." Aesthetics: Sensory characteristics (sound, feel, look, and so on).
    •  
  21. The dimension of design quality that concerns the consistency of performance over time or the
    (p. 288)
    probability of failing is which of the following?
    Reliability


    Exhibit 9.2: "The Dimensions of Design Quality." Reliability/durability: consistency of performance over time, probability of failing, useful life.
  22. The dimension of design quality that concerns secondary characteristics is which of the following? 
    (p. 288)
     
    Features

    Exhibit 9.2: "The Dimensions of Design Quality." Features: Added touches, bells and whistles, secondary characteristics.
  23. Which of the following is a dimension of design quality? 
    (p. 289)
    Features

    The dimensions of design quality in exhibit 9.2 are: Performance, Features, Reliability/durability, Serviceability, Aesthetics, and Perceived quality.
  24. Which of the following is a dimension of design quality? 
    (p. 289)
     
    Aesthetics

    The dimensions of design quality in exhibit 9.2 are: Performance, Features, Reliability/durability, Serviceability, Aesthetics, and Perceived quality.
  25. Which of the following are basic assumptions that justify an analysis of the costs of quality? 
    (p. 289)
     
    Failures are caused

    Three basic assumptions justify an analysis of the costs of quality: (1) failures are caused, (2) prevention is cheaper, and (3) performance can be measured.
  26. A cost of quality classification is which of the following? 
    (p. 289- 290)
     
    Prevention costs

    The costs of quality are generally classified into four types: 1. appraisal costs, 2. prevention costs, 3. internal failure costs, 4. external failure costs.
  27. 80.Which of the following is the cost of quality classification for costs such as scrap, rework, or repair? 
    (p. 290)


    Internal failure cost


    Internal failure costs: costs for defects incurred within the system: scrap, rework, repair.
  28. Which of the following is the cost of quality classification for costs such as inspection, testing, and other tasks to ensure that the product or process is acceptable?
    • Appraisal costs
    • p.289 Appraisal costs, costs of the inspection, testing, and other tasks to ensure that the product or process is acceptable.
  29. 82.Which of the following is the cost of quality classification for costs such as defects that pass through the
    (p. 290)

    A. Appraisal costs
    B. Prevention costs
    C. External failure costs D. Customer return cost E. Workmanship costs
    • External Failure Costs
    • External failure costs: costs for defects that pass through the system: customer warranty replacements, loss of customers or goodwill, handling complaints, and product repair.
  30. In monitoring process quality we might use which of the following statistics? 
    (p. 319)
    • Difference between the highest and lowest value in a sample
    • An R chart is a plot of the range within each sample. The range is the difference between the highest and the lowest numbers in that sample.
  31. You have just used the capability index (Cpk) formulas to compute the two values "min [2, 2.5]." Which of the following is the proper interpretation of these numbers?
    p. 312 The mean of the production process has shifted to the left of the design limits.

    Because the process mean can shift in either direction, the direction of shift and its distance from the design specification set the limit on the process capability. The direction of shift is toward the smaller number.
  32. 37.You have just used the capability index (Cpk) formulas to compute the two values "min [1, 1]." Which of the following is the proper interpretation of these numbers?
    p. 312 The mean has not shifted at all

    Because the process mean can shift in either direction, the direction of shift and its distance from the design specification set the limit on the process capability. The direction of shift is toward the smaller number.
  33. You have just used the capability index (Cpk) formulas to compute the two values "min [1.5, 1]." Which of the following is the interpretation of these numbers?
    p.312 The mean of the production process has shifted to the right of the design limits.

    Because the process mean can shift in either direction, the direction of shift and its distance from the design specification set the limit on the process capability. The direction of shift is toward the smaller number.
  34. Quality control charts usually have a central line and upper and lower control limit lines. Which of the following is not a reason that the process being monitored with the chart should be investigated?
    p.315 A change in raw materials or operators

    See exhibit 9A.4. Answer D is not a reason to investigate the process being monitored.
  35. Quality control charts usually have a central line and upper and lower control limit lines. Which of the following are reasons that the process being monitored with the chart should be investigated?
    p.315 A single plot falls above or below the control limits

    See exhibit 9A.4. A single plot falling above or below the control limits is a reason to investigate the process being monitored.
  36. If there are 120 total defects from 10 samples, each sample consisting of 10 individual items in a production process, which of the following is the fraction defective that can be used in a "p" chart for quality control purposes?
    p. 315, 1.2


    The fraction defective = Total number of defects from all samples/Number of samples x Sample size = 120/100 = 1.2. See equation 9A.4.
  37. If there are 400 defects from 8 samples, each sample consisting of 20 individual items in a production process, which of the following is the fraction defective that can be used in a "p" chart for quality control purposes?
    p. 315, 2.5

    The fraction defective = Total number of defects from all samples/Number of samples x Sample size = 400/(20 x 8) = 2.5. See equation 9A.4.
  38. You want to determine the upper control line for a "p" chart for quality control purposes. You take several samples of a size of 100 items in your production process. From the samples you determine the fraction defective is 0.05 and the standard deviation is 0.01. If the desired confidence level is 99.7 percent, which of the following is the resulting UCL value for the line?
    (p. 315)

     
    • 0.08
    • Where p bar is the fraction defective, sis the standard deviation, n is the sample size, and z is the number of standard deviations for a specific confidence. Typically, z = 3 (99.7 percent confidence) or z = 2.58 (99 percent confidence) is used. In this problem, p bar is 0.05 and s= 0.01 thus, 0.05 + (3 x 0.01) = 0.08.
  39. You want to determine the lower control line for a"p" chart for quality control purposes. You take several samples of a size of 50 items in your production process. From the samples you determine the fraction defective is 0.006 and the standard deviation is 0.001. If the desired confidence level is 99.7 percent, which of the following is the resulting LCL value for the line?
    • 0.003
    • p.315 Where p-bar is the fraction defective, sp is the standard deviation, n is the sample size, and z is the number of standard deviations for a specific level of confidence. Typically, z = 3 (99.7 percent confidence) or z = 2.58 (99 percent confidence) is used. In this problem, p-bar is 0.006 and sp = 0.001 thus, 0.006 - (3 x 0.001) = 0.003.
    •  
  40. You want to determine the control lines for a "p" chart for quality control purposes. If the desired confidence level is 99 percent, which of the following values for "z" would you use in computing the UCL and LCL?
    • 2.58
    • p.315 Typically, z = 3 (99.7 percent confidence) or z = 2.58 (99 percent confidence) is used.
  41. You want to determine the control lines for a "p" chart for quality control purposes. If the desired confidence level is 99 percent, which of the following values for "z" would you use in computing the UCL and LCL?
    • 2.58
    • p.315 Typically, z = 3 (99.7 percent confidence) or z = 2.58 (99 percent confidence) is used.
    •  
  42. You want to determine the control lines for a "p" chart for quality control purposes. If the total number of defects from all samples is 2,500, the number of samples is 100, and the sample size is 50, which of the following would be the standard deviation used in developing the control lines?
    • 0.0707
    • p.315 

    From equation 9A.4, the fraction defective = Total number of defects from all samples/(Number of samples x Sample size) = 2,500/(100 x 50) = 0.5. The standard deviation, then, is calculated from equation 9A.5 to equal the square root of the result of the fraction defective times one minus the fraction defective divided by the sample size = square root ((0.5 x 0.5)/50)or 0.0707.
  43. You want to determine the control lines for a "p" chart for quality control purposes. If the total number of defects from all samples is 560, the number of samples is 70, and the sample size is 80, which of the following would be the standard deviation used in developing the control lines?
    • 0.0335
    • p.315 

    • From equation 9A.4, the fraction defective = Total number of defects from all samples/(Number
    • of samples x Sample size) = 560/(70 x 80) = 0.1. The standard deviation, then, is calculated from equation 9A.5 to equal the square root of the result of the fraction defective times one minus the fraction defective divided by the sample size = square root ((0.1 x 0.9)/80) or 0.0335.
  44. For which of the following should we use a "p" chart to monitor process quality? 
    (p. 317)
    • Defective electrical switches
    • p.317 In the case of the p chart, the item was either good or bad. Also, (Page 314) Measurement by attributes means taking samples and using a single decision—the item is good or it is bad. Because it is a yes
    • or no decision, we can use simple statistics to create a p chart with an upper control limit (UCL) and a lower control limit (LCL).
  45. For which of the following should we use a "p" chart to monitor process quality?
    • Grades in freshman "pass/fail" course
    • p. 317 In the case of the p chart, the item was either good or bad. Also, (Page 314) Measurement by attributes means taking samples and using a single decision—the item is good or it is bad. Because it is a yes
    • or no decision, we can use simple statistics to create a p chart with an upper control limit (UCL) and a lower control limit (LCL).
  46. With which of the following should we use an "X-bar" chart based on sample means to monitor process quality? 
    (p. 317)
    Tire pressures in an auto assembly plant 

    In attribute sampling, we determine whether something is good or bad, fits or doesn't fit—it is a go/no- go situation. In variables sampling we measure the actual weight, volume, number of inches, or other variable measurements, and we develop control charts to determine the acceptability or rejection of the process based on those measurements. X-bar and R charts are used with variable measurements.
  47. Which of the following should we use an "R" chart to monitor process quality? 
    (p. 317)
    Tire pressures in an auto assembly plant.

    In attribute sampling, we determine whether something is good or bad, fits or doesn't fit—it is a go/no- go situation. In variables sampling we measure the actual weight, volume, number of inches, or other variable measurements, and we develop control charts to determine the acceptability or rejection of the process based on those measurements. X-bar and R charts are used with variable measurements.
  48. Which of the following should we use an "R" chart to monitor process quality? 
    (p. 317)
     
    Student grades measured from 1 to 100.

    In attribute sampling, we determine whether something is good or bad, fits or doesn't fit—it is a go/no- go situation. In variables sampling we measure the actual weight, volume, number of inches, or other variable measurements, and we develop control charts to determine the acceptability or rejection of the process based on those measurements. X-bar and R charts are used with variable measurements.
  49. You are developing an "X-bar" chart based on sample means. you know the standard deviation of the sample means is 4, the desired confidence level is 99.7 percent, and the average of the sample means is 24. Which of the following is your UCL?
    • 36
    • p.319 Using equation 9A.12, X-bar = 24, standard deviation = 4 and z = 3, UCL = 24 + (3 x 4) = 36.
    •  
  50. you are developing an "X bar" chart based on sample means.You know the standard deviation of the sample means is 4, the desired confidence level is 99 percent, and the average of the sample means is 20. Which of the following is your LCL?
    • 9.68 
    • p. 319 Using equation 9A.12, X-bar = 20, standard deviation = 4 and z = 2.58, LCL = 20 - (2.58 x 4) = 9.68.
    •  
  51. You want to develop a three-sigma "R" chart. You know the average range is 5 based on several samples of size 10. Which of the following is the resulting UCL?
    • 8.9 
    • p.320 From exhibit 9A.6, R-bar = 5, n = 10, D4 = 1.78. UCL = D4 x R-bar = 1.78 x 5 = 8.9.
    •  
  52. You want to develop a three-sigma "R" chart. You know the average range is 12 based on several samples of size 6. Which of the following is the resulting LCL? 
    (p. 320)
    0.0 

    From exhibit 9A.6, R-bar = 12, n = 6, D3 = 0. LCL = D3 x R-bar = 0 x 12 = 0.0.
  53. If you are going to develop an "X bar" chart based on range statistics and you are using a sample size of 12 for your charting purposes. Which of the following is the A2 factor for the "X bar" chart?
    • 0.27
    • p. 320 From exhibit 9A.6, n = 12, A2 = 0.27.
  54. If you are going to develop an "R" chart based on range statistics and you are using a sample size of 9 for your charting purposes. Which of the following is the lower control limit D3 factor for the chart?
    • 0.18
    • P.320 From exhibit 9A.6, n = 9, D3 = 0.18.
  55. If you are going to develop an "R" chart based on range statistics and you are using a sample size of 15 for your charting purposes. Which of the following is the upper control limit Dfactor for the chart? 
    (p. 320)
    1.65 

    From exhibit 9A.6, n = 15, D4 = 1.65.

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