experiencing bodily impulses when small children become aware of themselves as separate entities from those around them but they have no control over those impulses yet (emotional range is narrow)
What is involved in the self-protective stage?
child becomes aware of his or her impulses and gains some control over them to secure at least an immediate advantage. there is a preoccupation with taking advantage of others and of others taking advantage of oneself (often expressed in hostile humor)
What is involved in the conformist stage?
able to identify themselves with their reference group, whether it is family, peer group, or work group
What is involved in the self-aware stage?
awareness that there are allowable exceptions to the simple rules the conformists live by (existence that is separate from their group)
What is involved in the conscientious stage?
people have formed their own ideals and standards instead of just seeking the approval of their group (express their inner life using rich and varied words to describe their thoughts and emotions)
What is involved in the individualistic stage?
time people use to take a broad view of life as a whole (think in terms of psychological causes and are able to consider their own developmental processes)
What is involved in the autonomous stage?
life is complex and situations don't have simple answers or even one best answer (lessening of the burden taken on at the conscientious stage and a respect for the autonomy of others)
What are integrative themes?
having new perspectives on the self and others
What is mature adaptation?
potential progressive change in the ways adults adapt psychologically to the trials and tribulations they face
What is a defense mechanism?
set of normal, unconscious strategies used for dealing with anxiety