Chapter 22 Trauma Overview

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hiker0001
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270094
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Chapter 22 Trauma Overview
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2014-04-10 19:16:01
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Trauma Overview
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Chapter 22 Trauma Overview
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  1. For people younger than age __ years, traumatic injuries are the leading cause of death in the United States.
    40
  2. Your awareness and concern for potentially serious underlying and unseen injuries.
    index of suspicion
  3. Force acting over a distance.
    Work
  4. The work of a moving object is called:
    kinetic energy.
  5. The product of mass (weight), force of gravity, and height; it is mostly associated with the energy of falling objects.
    Potential energy
  6. Traumatic injuries can be divided into two separate categories:
    • blunt trauma
    • penetrating trauma
  7. A crash typically consists of three collisions:
    • Car against another car, tree, or object
    • Passenger against the interior of the car
    • Passenger’s internal organs against the solid structures of the body
  8. Four significant MOIs in a vehicular collision include:
    • Death of an occupant in the vehicle
    • Severe deformity of vehicle or intrusion into vehicle
    • Altered mental status
    • Ejection from the vehicle
  9. Children shorter than __ should ride in the rear seat.
    4'9″
  10. Rear-end collisions are known to cause ____-type injuries, particularly in absence of an appropriately placed headrest.
    whiplash
  11. Approximately 25% of all severe injuries to the aorta that occur in motor vehicle crashes are a result of ____ collisions.
    lateral
  12. The most common life-threatening event in a rollover is ____ or partial ____ of the passenger from the vehicle.
    ejection
  13. Three things you should determine in a car versus pedestrian accident:
    • Speed of the vehicle
    • Whether the patient was thrown through the air and at what distance
    • Whether the patient was struck and pulled under the vehicle
  14. Five things you should determine in a car versus pedestrian accident:
    • Speed of the vehicle
    • Whether the patient was thrown through the air and at what distance
    • Whether the patient was struck and pulled under the vehicle
    • Also evaluate the damage to, and position of, the bicycle
    • If the patient was wearing a helmet, inspect it for damage
  15. A fall from more than __ feet or _ times the patient’s height is considered significant.
    • 15
    • 3
  16. Take the following three factors into account when evaluating a fall:
    • The height of the fall
    • The type of surface struck
    • The part of the body that hit first, followed by the path of energy displacement
  17. ____ trauma is the second leading cause of trauma death in the United States after blunt trauma.
    Penetrating
  18. ____ cavitation is caused by the acceleration of the bullet and causes a stretching of the tissues.
    Temporary
  19. ____ cavitation is caused by the bullet path and remains once the projectile has passed through the tissue.
    Permanent
  20. Air resistance, often referred to as ____, slows the projectile, decreasing the depth of penetration and thus reducing damage to the tissues.
    drag
  21. Four types of blast injury:
    • primary
    • secondary
    • tertiary
    • miscellaneous
  22. ____ blast injuries are due entirely to the blast itself.
    Primary
  23. In ____ blast injuries, damage to the body results from being struck by flying debris.
    secondary
  24. In ____ blast injuries, the victim is hurled by the force of the explosion, sometimes against a stationary object.
    tertiary
  25. Three types of miscellaneous blast injuries:
    • Burns from hot gases or fires started by the blast
    • Respiratory injury from inhaling toxic gases
    • Crush injury from the collapse of buildings
  26. Organs that contain ____, such as the middle ear, lung, and gastrointestinal tract, are the most susceptible to pressure changes.
    air
  27. The ____ is most sensitive to blast injuries.
    ear
  28. The tympanic membrane evolved to detect minor changes in pressure and will rupture at pressures of:
    5 to 7 pounds per square inch above atmospheric pressure.
  29. Two common pulmonary injuries in blast injuries:
    • pneumothorax
    • pulmonary edema
  30. One of the most concerning pulmonary blast injuries is ____ ____ ____, which occurs on alveolar disruption with subsequent air embolization into the pulmonary vasculature.
    arterial air embolism
  31. Arterial air embolism as a result of a blast can produce these four things:
    • Disturbances in vision
    • Changes in behavior
    • Changes in state of consciousness
    • Variety of other neurologic signs
  32. ____ injuries and head trauma are the most common causes of death from blast injuries.
    Neurologic
  33. DCAP-BTLS stands for:
    • Deformity
    • Contusion
    • Abrasion
    • Puncture/penetrating injury
    • Burns
    • Tenderness
    • Laceration
    • Swelling
  34. On-scene time for critically injured patients should be less than:
    10 minutes.
  35. Trauma centers are categorized as either ____ trauma centers or ____ trauma centers, but not necessarily both.
    • adult
    • pediatric
  36. Medium-velocity penetrating injuries may be caused by a:
    A. knife
    B. handgun
    C. sling-shot
    D. military assault rifle
    B. handgun
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. Airbags decrease injury to all of the following EXCEPT:
    A. chest
    B. heart
    C. face
    D. head
    B. heart
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. "For every reaction, there is an equal and opposite reaction" is Newton's ____ law.
    third
  39. Patients suffering form an open would to the neck may suffer from all of the following EXCEPT:
    A. subcutaneous crepitation
    B. tension pneumothorax
    C. significant bleeding
    D. air emolism
    B. tension pneumothorax
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. True or false.  Work is defined as force acting over distance.
    true
  41. A scoring system used for patients with head trauma.
    revised trauma score (RTS)
  42. During a rollover, which of the following can cause life-threatening injuries to a passenger?
    A. ejection or partial ejection
    B. the car striking several objects during the rollover
    C. unrestrained objects inside the car
    D. all of the above
    D. all of the above
  43. Which of the following would not be considered a significant mechanism of injury?
    A. death of an occupant in a vehicle
    B. severe damage to a vehicle
    C. patient with altered mental status
    D. entrapment
    D. entrapment
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. When treating the victim of a bicycle accident, you should suspect head and spine injuries if:
    A. the patient's helmet is damaged
    B. the bicycle is damaged
    C. the patient fell onto a hard surface
    D. the patient is crying
    A. the patient's helmet is damaged
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. A 40-year-old unrestrained female impacted the steering wheel of her vehicle with her chest when she hit a tree while traveling at 45 mph. She is conscious and alert, but is experiencing significant chest pain and shortness of breath. Which of the following injuries did this patient likely NOT experience?
    A. multiple rib fractures
    B. head injury
    C. cardiac contusion
    D. pulmonary contusion
    B. head injury
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. A 15-year-old female was struck by a small car while riding her bicycle. She was wearing a helmet and was thrown to the ground, striking her head. In addition to managing problems associated with airway, breathing, and circulation, it is MOST important for you to:
    A. stabilize her entire spine.
    B. obtain baseline vital signs.
    C. leave her bicycle helmet on.
    D. inspect the helmet for cracks.
    A. stabilize her entire spine.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. Evaluation of the interior of a crashed motor vehicle during extrication will allow the EMT to:
    A. determine the vehicle's speed at the time of impact.
    B. assess the severity of the third collision of the crash.
    C. identify contact points and predict potential injuries.
    D. recognize if the driver hit the brakes before impact.
    C. identify contact points and predict potential injuries.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Three aspects of the Glascow Coma Scale:
    • Eye
    • Verbal
    • Motor
  49. What is the number range for the Glascow Coma Scale?
    1 to 6
  50. List the eyes for GCS:
    • 1 - does not open eyes
    • 2 - eyes open in response to painful stimuli
    • 3 - eyes open in response to voice
    • 4 - eyes open spontaneously
    • 5 - N/A
    • 6 - N/A
  51. List the verbal for GCS:
    • 1- makes no sounds
    • 2 - incomprehensible sounds
    • 3 - utters inappropriate words
    • 4 - confused, disoriented
    • 5 - oriented, converses normally
    • 6 - N/A
  52. List the motor for GCS:
    • 1 - makes no movements
    • 2 - extension to painful stimuli
    • 3 - abnormal flexion to painful stimuli
    • 4 - flexion/withdrawal to painful stimuli
    • 5 - localizes painful stimuli
    • 6 - obeys commands

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