psychology ch 7 study guide
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Recite the definition of classical conditioning and then rephase in your own words
A phenomenon that occurs when a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response.
- So associating one thing with a naturally occurring response...
- focuses on involuntary automatic responses
- Reminder: Pavlov's dogs
- this is an association of two previously unrelated things and a response.
example: you naturally feel awake when you drink coffee. but because you drink it out of a certain mug, that mug makes you feel awake without coffee.
Recite the definition of operant/instrumental conditioning and then rephrase in your own words
a type of learning in which the consequences of an organism's behavior determine whether that behavior will be repeated in the future
Focuses on punishment and reinforcement after a behavior. either strengthens or weakens a voluntary behavior
Describe the differences between classical, operant, and observational conditioning
- Classical conditioning: is the involuntary association between a stimuli and a response.
- Operant Conditioning: is the Voluntary association between a response or action and a reinforcer or punishment (reward or punishment system)
- Observational learning: is learning through watching others... (such as kids mimicking adults)
- example: the bandura bobo doll experiments
Recite the definitions of, and then rephrase each in your own words:
Neutral Stimulus: stimulus that does not create or illicit a response by itself
Unconditioned stimulus: Stimulus that by itself, creates a natural response... such as fear or pain
Conditioned Stimulus: previously Neutral stimulus that gets associated with Unconditioned stimulus
- Unconditioned response: the natural bodily response of unconditioned stimulus
- Conditioned response: the Response that gets associated with Conditioned stimulus
- Neutral Stimulus = Conditioned stimulus
- Unconditioned response = conditioned response
Be able to recognize examples of:
an example of each!
Describe the difference between extinction and spontaneous recovery in classical conditioning
- extinction: the Conditioned Response diminishes quickly until it no longer occurs. however it is typically followed by spontaneous recovery
- Spontaneous Recovery: the tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period
Be able to recognize examples of stimulus generalization and discrimination
- Generalization: a process in which the Conditioned Response is observed even though the Conditioned stimulus is slightly different from the original one used during acquisition.
- example: little Albert was conditioned to be afraid of a fury rat. but also became afraid of other fury things such as a rabbit, a fur coat, and a Santa mask
- Discrimination: the capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli
- example: Being afraid of certain types of dogs, but not afraid of other dogs.
Recite the definition of reinforcement and then rephrase
Reinforcer: Any Stimulus or event that functions to increase the likelihood of the behavior that led to it... It is a REWARD . can be food, a smile, a hug, compliment, etc.
Recite the definition of negative reinforcement and describe how it is different from punishment and then rephrase; be able to recognize differences in an example
- Negative reinforcement: the removal of something unpleasant - designed to increase behavior
- example: Turning off an alarm clock by pressing the snooze button.
- example2: a child cleaning their room to get a parent to stop complaining.
- Punishment: Any Stimulus or event that functions to increase the likelihood of the behavior that led to it
- Negative punishment: Removal of something to stop a behavior
- example: sending a dog to their cage for barking
- positive punishment: adding of something to stop a behavior
- example: spanking a child for running in the street.
Describe the sequence of behavior and consequence (reinforcement or punishment) that must be followed for learning to occur
Reinforcement teaches which behaviors are good, and punishment teaches which behaviors are bad and are necessary to learning.
- if you want a behavior to increase = reinforcement
- if you want it to decrease = punishment
Describe the difference between continuous and partial reinforcement and be able to recognize examples of each
- Continuous Reinforcement: reinforcement 100% of the time an action is performed.
- example: selling a car, and getting paid for each car
- Partial reinforcement: reinforcement that is given on either a fixed or variable schedule, and either an Interval (timed) or Ratio (responses)
Describe the difference between ratio and interval schedules of reinforcement and be able to recognize examples of each
- Ratio schedule: after a set number of responses, a reward or punishment will happen
- # of responses
- Interval: After a set or variable time frame
- such as a paycheck is every two weeks
Describe the difference between fixed and variable schedules of reinforcement, as they relate to ratio and interval schedules
Fixed schedule: after a specific time frame or set responses. a reward occurs
Variable: a changing time frame or ratio of responses...
Describe modeling as a principle of observational learning and be able to recognize an example
- modeling: such as the bandura study, adults show children via "modeling" which allows children to learn through observation learning.
- children copied adults being aggressive toward the bobo doll
Describe the process of shaping and recognize an example
- Shaping: slowing changing a behavior overtime, by rewards through successive approximations
- example - teaching a rat to spin, or teaching a dog to shake hands
Define vicarious reinforcement, modeling, self efficacy, and identification and then rephrase; be able to recognize each in an example
- vicarious reinforcement: being reinforced by watching others... watching others being rewarded for good behavior
- example - kindergartens watchings other kids getting a sticker for reading a book
when others watch you... such as parents showing children a process, or older students showing younger students
a belief in one self, do something... self confidence
- identification: identifying with someone that is similar to you.
- such as a child identifying with an older child, and mimicking their behavior
- example: the bandura study, the boys related with the men, and the girls related with the women more than other combinations
Describe the findings in detail from Bandura’s and Ross’s study of observational learning
the children would attack the bobo doll after watching adults attack it.
Describe Watson’s study with Little Albert and discuss how it shows stimulus generalization
Describe Skinner’s results in his experiment with pigeons and superstitious behavior
Describe Tolman’s findings with rats and be able to recognize them
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