Origins of animal-mediated pollination

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  1. What 3 phylogenetically separate, extant groups of plants harbour instances of pollination mutualisms
    cycads, gnetalean conifers and angiosperms
  2. The vast majority of all extant pollination mutualisms involve
    flowering plants
  3. which three groups that have evolved flight, contain a v. large proportion of all pollinators
    insects, birds and bats
  4. within which orders are flower visiting spp espesh frequent
    hymenoptera, lepidoptera, diptera and coleoptera
  5. what morphological feature do lepidoptera have that make them flower specialists
    a coiling tongue
  6. what percentage of described spp on earth do the lepidoptera constitute
  7. how many phylogenetically independent groups of birds have diversified as flower-visitors and often as pollinators
  8. what do birds show convergent specialisation in for nectar feeding
  9. major radiations include what groups?
    American Trochilidae (hummingbirds and hermits), Paleotropical and Pacific Nectariniidae (sunbirds, flowerpeckers and sugarbirds), Australian Meliphagidae (honeyeaters and chats) and psittacid brushtongued parrots, and fringillid tanagers, New World and Hawaiian honeycreepers
  10. what percentage of bird spp do these groups constitute
  11. these bird spp are important pollinators in tropical and subtropical areas that can provide what throughout the year for these comparatively longlived animals
    floral resources
  12. Sazima et al 1995 found that some birds utilise how many species' flowers in succession throughout the year
  13. exceptions to the tropical and subtropical distribution are ...
    migratory hummingbirds in North America, which breed in temperate to alpine areas and pollinate many plant spp. Macrochiropterous fruit bats are imp flower visitors in tropical regions on all continents
  14. because animal pollination is basal within the angiosperms, this type of mutualism must have existed since when
    late jurassic
  15. fossil evidence suggests animal-mediated pollination may have occurred earlier still in other long-extinct what
    seed plants
  16. hermaphroditic flowers are unique to what
  17. there is considerable evolutionary plasticity in sex expression among angiosperms, so the basal condition might have been either what or what
    hermaphroditic or unisexual flowers
  18. the physical proximity of the male and female floral parts in a hermaphroditic flower could greatly facilitate the evolution of animal pollination in basal angiosperms, why?
    because a visitor seeking pollen or ovules would probs come into contact w both sets of floral parts
  19. cycads and gnetalean plants are what
  20. other mechanisms in cycads and gnetalean plants must be used to do what
    incite visitors to transport pollen from male to female plants
  21. how do cycads attract pollinators to female flowers
    by deceit
  22. in gnetales, visitors do what
    lick liquid pollination droplets on ovules, which contains a low concentration of sugar and plays a role in trapping airborne pollen- specific to gymnosperms
  23. carbohydrate-rich angiosperm floral nectar isn't known to carry any other function than as a reward, for this reason, it is unclear why it would've existed in flowers before what
    pollinator attraction had become established
  24. nectar is the most what in present day angiosperms
  25. nectar appeared when in diversification
  26. the production of a carbohydrate reward can reduce the cost of pollinator attraction to plants how?
    both gametes aren't directly lost to the pollen vector, and because fewer nitrgoen resources need to be allocated to pollinator rewards
  27. What arguments have been put forth to support the hypothesis that animal pollination has been important in driving reciprocal diversification
    • 1. angiosperms and primary orders of insects involved in pollination experienced v rapid diversification in rough simultaneity from the latter half of cretaceous onward
    • 2. because pollinators exert immediate control on plant gene flow, potential for assortative mating and subsequent diversification may be higher in this type of interaction
  28. consistent w hypothesis, important insect pollinator groups emerged when
    before angiosperms in early mesozoic or before
  29. after slow early diversification, they showed what once they associated w the angiosperms
    rapid rate increase
  30. an argument agains animal pollination as a single catalyst was presented by Sanderson and Donoghue (1994) who showed what
    diversification rate increased not at base of angiosperms where animal pollination arose but rather at a later point. they conclude that it could be a cofactor in later diversification, interacting w other angiosperm life habits
  31. what is a final means to test the hypothesis
    analyse the three separate origins in independent contrasts test and ask whether they led to sig elevated diversity in animal pollinated group than in its sister group
  32. angiosperm diversity is much higher than what?
  33. the animal pollinated cycads of the Zamiaceae aren't what than their wind pollinated sisters
    more spp rich
  34. Gnetales contain fewer than how many extant spp compared to 262 in wind pollinated Pinaceae
Card Set:
Origins of animal-mediated pollination
2014-04-10 21:21:28
pollination animal origins
animal and plant interactions
origins of animal mediated pollination, organisms involved in pollination mutualisms, evolutionary origins and early diversification, pollination mutualism as a catalyst of reciprocal diversification
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