# RAD-139 CH.8 & 9 EARLY AND LATE SOMATIC EFFECTS ON ORGANS

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1. a graph with a dip or loop that begins at the start of the corner of the graph is called a
2. linear quadratic graphs are stochastic in other words aka
non threshold
3. stochastic is aka as ______ & ______
probablistic and non threshold
4. what is a stochastic probablistic non threshold disease
it is a disease the can happen over an extended period of time like cancer there is a probablility that genetic effects, life shortening diseases can occur
5. linear non threshold dose response means?
that no dose of radiation is safe and can cause damage
6. A non threshold linear curve graph means the dose of radiation can affect what
and what does this graph look like
• the whole body
• straight line up in the middle of graph
7. what is the type of graph that begins radiation at 2 gy and progresses in the affects of proportional biologic damage due to radiation
and why?
• linear nonstochastic threshold deterministic curve graph
• because the it gives you a threshold (2gy) where a certain effect can happen like temporary sterility
8. another 2 terms for nonstochastic is
deterministic/threshold
9. linear:
ex?
• means that an observed response is directly proportional to the dose
• doubling the dose of radiation would double the response
10. non linear:
ex?
• means that an observed response is not directly proportional to the dose
• ex. doubling the dose of radiation does not double the response
11. threshold:
nonthreshold:
• assumes that there is a radiation level reached below which thee wold be no effects observed
• assumes that any radiation dose produces an effect
12. another 2 terms for non threshold
stochastic/probablistic
13. Linear nonthreshold response models are most accurate when
14. what is the only disease that is non linear threshold and the curve looks like a sigmoid
cataracts
15. a linear threshold dose response graph looks like what
the dose or start of the graph is higher up and proceeds linear increasing as dose increases
16. Diagnostic radiology is concerned with what dose relationship
linear nonthreshold dose response
17. stochastic is aka
problisitic
18. what are stochastic health effects
effects that occur by chance generally occuring without a threshold of level of dose
leukemia breast cancer and other genetic damage
20. nonstochastic effects of significant radiation such as erythema and hematologic depression can be demonstrated using what dose respons
linear threshold curve dose response
21. most threshold dose responses are _____ except for
• linear
• cataracts
22. what are the somatic and genetic damage factors (4)
• the quantity of ionizing radiation to which the subject is exposed
• ability of ionizing radiation to cause ionization in human tissue
• amt of body area exposed
• specific body parts exposd
23. ______ are graphs or map relationship between observed effects (response) radiation recieved by the patient
dose relationship response curves
24. what are the two ways that dose response curve differ
• they are either linear or nonlinear
• they are threshold or nonthreshold
25. list the four dose response curves
• linear nonthreshold dose
• linear threshold dose response
• nonlinear (sigmoid curve)
26. no radiation dose is believed to be absolutely ____
safe
27. if effects(early or acute) are cell killing and directly related to the dose recieved they are ______ & ______ effects
ex?
• nonstochastic & determinstic
• hair loss burns skin reddening
28. if effects are late effects that are mutational or randomly occuring biologic somatic changes independent of dose they are _____ & ______
ex?
• stochastic & probablistic
• cancer
29. nonstochastic effects are also called
deterministic efects
30. as dose increases in nonstochastic effects ____ increases
severity of effect
31. somatic early nonstochastic threshold determinstic effects appear within ____
minutes hours days or weeks following substantial exposure
32. what are the high dose effects cause in a threshold determinstic nonstochastic
are these seen in the diagnostic range
• nausea fatigue erythema epilation(hair loss) blood disorders instestinal disorders fever depressed sperm count sterility and CNS damage desquamation(skin shedding)
• no unless the exam is high level fluoroscopy
33. what occurs at 600 rad
34. acute radiation syndrome occurs in what three body systems
• hematological or hematopoietic
• gastrointestinal
• cerbrovascular - CNS damage
35. in the acute radiation syndrom how much radiation is need to cause hematological damage
1-2 gy
36. what are the four stages of the acute radiation syndrome
• prodromal
• latent
• manifest illness
• recovery or death
37. during the prodromal stage how much radiation is needed to allow this stage to take place
what symptoms are taken place here
• leucopenia fatigue vomiting diarrhea
38. what is the latent period of the acute syndrome radiation sickness
• symptoms go away for a week
• recovery or lethat effects begin
39. during the manifest stage hwat happens
list some symptoms
• symptoms of the hematological cerebrovascular and GI effects become visible
• apathy, confusion dehydration epilation exhaustion vomiting
40. what is a sublethal dose and much wil lthis person recieve if they survive
is recovery possible
• a dose of radiation that does not kill you
• 2-3 gy
• yes
41. in the recovery or death phase what is the dose of radiation that noone is expected to die at
42. in the recovery or death phase about how much radiation will cause definite death unless need of vigourous medical support is there
43. in the recovery or death phase how much radiation is definite death even with medical support