RAD-139 CH.8 & 9 EARLY AND LATE SOMATIC EFFECTS ON ORGANS

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anatomy12
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270134
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RAD-139 CH.8 & 9 EARLY AND LATE SOMATIC EFFECTS ON ORGANS
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2014-04-10 20:43:26
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  1. a graph with a dip or loop that begins at the start of the corner of the graph is called a
    linear quadratic
  2. linear quadratic graphs are stochastic in other words aka
    non threshold
  3. stochastic is aka as ______ & ______
    probablistic and non threshold
  4. what is a stochastic probablistic non threshold disease
    it is a disease the can happen over an extended period of time like cancer there is a probablility that genetic effects, life shortening diseases can occur
  5. linear non threshold dose response means?
    that no dose of radiation is safe and can cause damage
  6. A non threshold linear curve graph means the dose of radiation can affect what
    and what does this graph look like
    • the whole body
    • straight line up in the middle of graph
  7. what is the type of graph that begins radiation at 2 gy and progresses in the affects of proportional biologic damage due to radiation
    and why?
    • linear nonstochastic threshold deterministic curve graph
    • because the it gives you a threshold (2gy) where a certain effect can happen like temporary sterility
  8. another 2 terms for nonstochastic is
    deterministic/threshold
  9. linear:
    ex?
    • means that an observed response is directly proportional to the dose
    • doubling the dose of radiation would double the response
  10. non linear:
    ex?
    • means that an observed response is not directly proportional to the dose
    • ex. doubling the dose of radiation does not double the response
  11. threshold:
    nonthreshold:
    • assumes that there is a radiation level reached below which thee wold be no effects observed
    • assumes that any radiation dose produces an effect
  12. another 2 terms for non threshold
    stochastic/probablistic
  13. Linear nonthreshold response models are most accurate when
    during high let radiation
  14. what is the only disease that is non linear threshold and the curve looks like a sigmoid
    cataracts
  15. a linear threshold dose response graph looks like what
    the dose or start of the graph is higher up and proceeds linear increasing as dose increases
  16. Diagnostic radiology is concerned with what dose relationship
    linear nonthreshold dose response
  17. stochastic is aka
    problisitic
  18. what are stochastic health effects
    effects that occur by chance generally occuring without a threshold of level of dose
  19. what diseases follow the linear quadratic nonthreshold dose resonse relationship
    leukemia breast cancer and other genetic damage
  20. nonstochastic effects of significant radiation such as erythema and hematologic depression can be demonstrated using what dose respons
    linear threshold curve dose response
  21. most threshold dose responses are _____ except for
    • linear
    • cataracts
  22. what are the somatic and genetic damage factors (4)
    • the quantity of ionizing radiation to which the subject is exposed
    • ability of ionizing radiation to cause ionization in human tissue
    • amt of body area exposed
    • specific body parts exposd
  23. ______ are graphs or map relationship between observed effects (response) radiation recieved by the patient
    dose relationship response curves
  24. what are the two ways that dose response curve differ
    • they are either linear or nonlinear
    • they are threshold or nonthreshold
  25. list the four dose response curves
    • linear nonthreshold dose
    • nonthreshold linear quadratic response
    • linear threshold dose response
    • nonlinear (sigmoid curve)
  26. no radiation dose is believed to be absolutely ____
    safe
  27. if effects(early or acute) are cell killing and directly related to the dose recieved they are ______ & ______ effects
    ex?
    • nonstochastic & determinstic
    • hair loss burns skin reddening
  28. if effects are late effects that are mutational or randomly occuring biologic somatic changes independent of dose they are _____ & ______
    ex?
    • stochastic & probablistic
    • cancer
  29. nonstochastic effects are also called
    deterministic efects
  30. as dose increases in nonstochastic effects ____ increases
    severity of effect
  31. somatic early nonstochastic threshold determinstic effects appear within ____
    minutes hours days or weeks following substantial exposure
  32. what are the high dose effects cause in a threshold determinstic nonstochastic
    are these seen in the diagnostic range
    • nausea fatigue erythema epilation(hair loss) blood disorders instestinal disorders fever depressed sperm count sterility and CNS damage desquamation(skin shedding)
    • no unless the exam is high level fluoroscopy
  33. what occurs at 600 rad
    acute radiation syndrom
  34. acute radiation syndrome occurs in what three body systems
    • hematological or hematopoietic
    • gastrointestinal
    • cerbrovascular - CNS damage
  35. in the acute radiation syndrom how much radiation is need to cause hematological damage
    1-2 gy
  36. what are the four stages of the acute radiation syndrome
    • prodromal
    • latent
    • manifest illness
    • recovery or death
  37. during the prodromal stage how much radiation is needed to allow this stage to take place
    what symptoms are taken place here
    • 1gy (100RAD)
    • leucopenia fatigue vomiting diarrhea
  38. what is the latent period of the acute syndrome radiation sickness
    • symptoms go away for a week
    • recovery or lethat effects begin
  39. during the manifest stage hwat happens
    list some symptoms
    • symptoms of the hematological cerebrovascular and GI effects become visible
    • apathy, confusion dehydration epilation exhaustion vomiting 
    • fever headaches
  40. what is a sublethal dose and much wil lthis person recieve if they survive
    is recovery possible
    • a dose of radiation that does not kill you
    • 2-3 gy
    • yes  
  41. in the recovery or death phase what is the dose of radiation that noone is expected to die at
    100 rads or 1 gy
  42. in the recovery or death phase about how much radiation will cause definite death unless need of vigourous medical support is there
    600 rad or 6 gy
  43. in the recovery or death phase how much radiation is definite death even with medical support
    above 1000 rads (10 gy)
  44. GI effects of the acute radiation syndrom start at how much radiation
    and for the CNS
    • 6gy
    • 50 gy
  45. what cells have a better chance of recovery
    oxygenated cells but recieve more damage
  46. what can occur as a consequence of bone marrow destruction
    death
  47. what occurs when a sublethal dose is given to someone
    all the cells that survived the amt of radiation can join together and repopulate in a matter of time (3-6 wks)
  48. what is the dose response curve called when the radiation is below the dose
    radiation hormesis - is the hypothesis that low doses of ionizing radiation are beneficial,stimulating the activation of repair mechanisms that protect against disease, that are not activated in absence of ionizing radiation.

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