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  1. What do these sports emphasize? (3)

    *wrestling, martial arts, bodybuilding, gymnastics, and figure skating
    Emphasize strength, conditioning, and body shape
  2. what is the typical body composition for the following sports? And why? (4)

    *wrestling, martial arts, bodybuilding, gymnastics, and figure skating
    <20 %

    • -energy used in training
    • -sports emphasis in leanness
    • -year round training programs
    • -increased demands of growth and development in younger adults
  3. Body composition within specific sports) Gymnastics, figure skating, and other aesthetic sports (3)
    -typically shorter than average stature

    -require speed, power, gracefulness, and aesthetic appeal

    • -lean body composition is required in order to facilitate artistic maneuvers
    • *it can potentially lead to restricted energy intake
  4. Body composition within specific sports) gymnastics, figure skating, and other aesthetic sports - in which 4 ways can delayed menarche occur?
    -low body weight

    -low percentage of body fat

    -decreased energy intake

    -increased level of physical activity
  5. Body composition within specific sports) Wrestling: (3)
    -body composition a concern because they have to make weight

    -weight categories vary

    -wrestlers typically are very muscular with low percentages of body fat
  6. Body composition within specific sports) Judo and tae kwon do
    Can greatly enhance their performance wit a lean body composition
  7. Body composition within specific sports) what were the 6 most common ways bodybuilders lost weight?
    • -smaller meals
    • -calorie-counting
    • -special diets
    • -fasting
    • -saunas, steam baths, and reduced fluid consumption

  8. Body composition within specific sports) 5 ways that bodybuilders reported to gain weight
    -amino acids

    -extra meals

    -protein powders

    -liquid supplements

    -special diets
  9. What has been found in some studies about athletes?
    • That most athletes consume less than their recommended amount of energy for their age and level
    • *they have found that they range up to 1500 kcal/day
  10. Excessive energy restriction can result in:
    • -negative effect on training performance
    • -dehydration
    • -nutrient deficiencies
    • -fatigue due to muscle  and liver glycogen depletion
    • -poor concentration
    • -lack of motivation
    • -delayed puberty
    • -short stature
    • -decrease in resting energy expenditure
    • -menstrual irregularities
    • -poor bone health
    • -increased incidence of injuries
    • -increased risk for developing eating disorders
  11. Nutrition recommendation) carb recommendation
    5-8 g/kg/day
  12. Nutrition recommendation) protein recommendations
    • -1.2-1.7 g/kg/day
    • *if energy is too low then they May need to consume 1.5-1.7 g/kg/day
  13. Nutrition recommendation) 3 risks of dehydration
    -total body water lowered

    -alters distribution of body water in the cellular compartments

    -causes fatigue, alck of concentration, and high risk of injury
  14. Nutrition recommendation) 4 tips to endure proper hydration of athletes
    -educate the team about the consequences of being dehydrated

    -discourage unsafe dehydration techniques

    -establish fluid consumption schedule for training and competition

    -communicate with the sports medicine team if hydration problems exist
  15. Nutrition recommendation) fluid recommendations: aesthetic sprots (3)
    -may have difficulty accessing fluids during training and competition

    -may intentionally restrict fluid intake to maintain lower body weights

    -may want to avoid training with a full bladder or frequent trips to the bathroom
  16. Nutrition recommendation) fluid requirements: sports with weight classes
    • a lot of athletes use techniques to dehydrate in order to make weight class
    • *these are supposed to be banned but they still perform these rituals
    • **excessive sweating, saunas, vomiting, fasting etch.
  17. Nutrition recommendation) when are sports drinks with electrolytes especially beneficial at? (4)
    -food intake has been restricted

    -after prolonged exercise

    -after increased sweating

    -athlete has used rapid weight loss techniques
  18. Nutrition recommendation) how long does it take to achieve normal hydration levels?
    6 hours
  19. Tips for making weight safely) to reduce risk of disordered eating (7)
    -de-emphasize body weight

    -eliminate group weigh-ins

    -treat each athlete individually

    -develop appropriate weight loss goals

    -facilitate healthy weight management

    -identify appropriate competition weight

    -specify rates and limits of allowable weight loss for each wrestler
  20. Goals of competition day meal (4)
    -oprevent hunger

    -stabilize blood sugar levels

    -provide adequate fluids

    -bc events are usually short, energy needs are not as great as on training days
  21. Goals of on day competition meals (4)
    -bc food and fluids are often severely restricted in days leading up to the event, athletes should maximize after weigh in

    -if athlete is nervous or unable to eat, provide liquid replacement meal

    -consume easily digested, low residue foods

    -always eat breakfast to optimize glycogen stores
  22. meal planning recommendation for pre, during, after) pre
    • -recommend small amount of lean protein with carb
    • *turkey, ham, tuna, low fat cheese
    • *bread, bagels, cold cereal, oatmeal, grits, banana etch.
  23. meal planning recommendation for pre, during, after) between events
    Sports drinks, carb gels, and energy bars work well
  24. meal planning recommendation for pre, during, after) if athletes have limited access to food then..
    Ingest 200-300 grams of carbs 3-4 hers before competition
  25. meal planning recommendation for pre, during, after) after event
    • -carb intake 1-2 g/kg in first 2 hours after exercise facilitates glycogen synthesis
    • *may intake as small frequent snacks every 15-30 minutes
  26. What are the 3 categories for eating disorders
    -anorexia nervosa

    -bulimia nervosa

    -eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS)
  27. What is disordered eating
    General term to describe the spectrum of abnormal and harmful eating behaviors that are used in a misguided attempt to lose weight or maintain a lower than normal body weight
  28. Characteristics of clinical eating disorders (3)
    -psychiatric conditions

    -go beyond simple body weight/shape dissatisfaction

    -involve more than just abnormal eating patterns and pathogenic weight control behaviors

    *these individuals  experience psychological conditions such as anxiety, come from dysfunctional families, history of emotional/physical abuse, often display feelings of insecurity.
  29. 2 characteristics of athletes with anorexia nervosa
    -not only strive for thinness but also the improvement in performance they believe will accompany it

    -are generally more resistant to intervention and often are more difficult to identify
  30. 2 characteristics athletes with bulimia
    • -engage in binge-purge cycles
    • *eating large amounts of food in a discrete period of time

    -may be difficult to interpret as athletes tend to eat larger amounts of foods due to increased energy expediture

    *both of these are very difficult to identify because they also exercise so its very easy to confuse their intentions
  31. What are subclinical variants of disordered eating and eating disorders?
    • When an athlete exhibits all of the overt behaviors of a clinical eating disorders but does not harbor the severe psychological disturbances that underlie the clinical disorders
    • *anorexia athletica/fear of obesity
  32. Disordered eating and eating disorders) risk factors

    -peri-adolescent age

    -certain psychological traits

    -self esteem issues

    -pressure from parents

    -dieting or restrained eating

    -lack of knowledge of nutrition and healthful eating practices
  33. Disordered eating and eating disorders) risk factors: gender- women (2)
    -more common in women

    -more common in athletes in aesthetic sports than in endurance or team/anaerobic sports
  34. What consists of the female triad?
    -disordered eating


    -amenorrhea/menstrual irregularities
  35. Disordered eating and eating disorders) risk factors in males (3)
    -more concerned with body weight and shpae

    • -dissatisfaction from being underweight
    • *bodybuilders

    • -muscle dysmorphia
    • *term for the belief that their bodies are not lean or muscular and perceive themselves to be small or weka
  36. Disordered eating and eating disorders) risk factors: age (2)
    -younger girls in aesthetic sports reported more than girls in non-aesthetic sports

    -younger athletes May be copying the port dietary practices of older and successful athletes
  37. Disordered eating and eating disorders) risk factors: psychological issues (2)
    -sports with higher risk may attract individuals with predisposition to eating disorders as they focus on weight and body shae

    -personality traits: striving for perfection, obsessive behavior, attention to detail
Card Set:
2014-04-11 00:28:15
sports nutrition

Nutrition for weight and body focused sports
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