CH 4 Carbohydrates

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  1. Carbohydrate
    "hydrated carbon"
    • one of the three macronutrients
    • a compound made up of C, H,  and O that is derived from plants and provides energy
  2. glucose
    • most abundant sugar molecule
    • monosaccharide generally found in combination with other sugars
    • preferred source of energy for the brain and an important source of energy for all cells
  3. photosynthesis
    • process by which plants use sunlight to fuel a chemical reaction that combines carbon and water into glucose, which is then stored in their cells
    • chlorophyll absorbs sunlight
  4. simple carbohydrate
    • commonly called sugar
    • can be either a monosaccharide (glucose, fructose, galactose) or a disaccharide (lactose, maltose, sucrose)
  5. monosaccharide
    • simplest of carbohydrates, consisting of one sugar molecule
    • most common forms are glucose, fructose, galactose
  6. disaccharide
    • a carbohydrate compound consisting of two sugar molecules jointed together
    • most common - lactose, maltose, sucrose
  7. fructose
    • sweetest natural sugar
    • a monosaccharide that occurs in fruits and vegetables
    • also called levulose or fruit sugar
  8. galactose
    • monosaccharide thatj oins with glucose to create lactose
    • lactose - one of the most common disaccharides
  9. ribose
    • five-carbon monosaccharide
    • located in genetic material of cells
  10. lactose
    • a disaccharide
    • consisting of one glucose molecule and one galactose molecule
    • found in milk, including breast milk
    • also called milk sugar
  11. maltose
    • disaccharide consisting of two molecules og glucose
    • does not generally occur independently in foods
    • results as by-product of digestion
    • also called malt sugar
  12. fermentation
    • process in which an agent causes an organic substance to break down into simpler substances 
    • results in production of ATP
  13. sucrose
    • disaccharide composed of one glucose molecules and one fructose molecule
    • sucrose isweeter than lactose or maltose
  14. complex carbohdrate
    nutrient compound consisting of long chains of glucose molecules, such as starch, glycogen, and fiber
  15. polysaccharide
    complex carbohydrate consisting of long chains of glucose
  16. starch
    • a polysaccharide stored in plants
    • the storage form of glucose in plants
  17. glycogen
    • a polysaccharide
    • the storage form of glucose in animals
  18. dietary fiber
    nondigestible carbohydrate parts of plants that form the support structures of leaves, stems, and seeds
  19. functional fiber
    • nondigestible forms of carbohydrates that are extracted from plants or manufactured in a laboratory
    • have known health benefits
  20. total fiber
    sum of dietary and functional fiber
  21. soluble fibers
    • fibers that dissolve in water
    • reduce risk of CAD and diabetes
    • lower blood cholesterol and blood glucose
    • include: pectins, gums, mucilages
  22. viscous
    • having  gel-like consistency
    • viscous fibers form a gel when dissolved in water
  23. insoluble fibers
    • fibers that do not dissolve in water
    • cannot be fermented by bacteria in the colon
    • reduce risk for diverticulosis
    • found in: whole grains, rye, brown rice, vegetables
    • include: lignins, cellulose, hemicelluloses
  24. Carbohydrates fuel daily activity
    body relies on carbohydrates and fats for energy
  25. Carbonhydrates fuel exercise
    • use glucose over fat
    • glucose breakdown occurs quick with or without oxygen
  26. Carbohydrates spare protein
    • body makes own glucose from protein
    • shortage of protein not available to repair tissue damage, make new cells, support immune system
  27. Ketosis
    process by which the breakdown of fat during fasting states results in production of ketones
  28. ketones
    • suppress appetite, dehydration, acetone breathe
    • substances produced during the breakdown of fat when carbohydrate intake is insufficient to meet energy needs
    • ketones provide an alternative energy source for the brain when the glucose levels are low
  29. ketoacidosis
    • a condition in which excessive ketones are present in the blood,  causing the blood to become very acidic, which alters basic body functions and damages tissues
    • untreated ketoacidosis can be fatal
    • this condition is found in idividuals with untreated diabetes mellitus
  30. gluconeogenesis
    generation of glucose from the breakdown of proteins into amino acids
  31. Carbohydrates on body weight
    • carbs are high in fiber and other nutrients that reduce obesity risks
    • calories that are not expended cause weight gain
    • fat =9kcal per gram / carbs=4kcal per gram
  32. Fibers effects on health
    • keeps us healthy
    • nutrient density and fiber content
    • although we cannot digest fiber, it helps us remain healthy and prevent digestive and chronic disease
    • reduces risk of colon cancer, prevents hemorrhoids anc consitpation, aids in elimination, reduces risk of diverticulitis, reduce risk for heart disease, enhance weight loss, lower risk of Type II diabetes
  33. diverticulitis
    trapped hard stool
  34. saliva
    salivary amylase
    breaks starch into small particles, eventually disaccharide maltose
  35. stomach on carbs
    all digestion ceases, stomach acid inactivates salivary amylase
  36. small intestine
    • majority of carbohydrate digestion
    • pancreas releases pancreatic amylase, contains to digest maltose
Card Set:
CH 4 Carbohydrates
2014-04-16 20:00:55
Nutrition: An Applied Approach
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