CH 3 The Human Body

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CH 3 The Human Body
2014-04-15 20:20:01
Nutrition: An Applied Approach
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  1. Hunger
    a physiologic sensation that prompts us to eat
  2. Appetite
    a psychological desire to consume specific foods
  3. Anorexia
    an absence of foods
  4. Hypothalamus
    a region of the forebrain above the pituitary gland, where visceral sensations, such as hunger and thirst, are regulated
  5. Hormone
    a chemical messenger secreted into the bloodstream by one of the many glands of the body, which acts as a regulator of physiologic processes at a site remote from the gland that secreted it
  6. cell
    the smallest unit of matter that exhibits the properties of living things, such as growth, reproduction, and metabolism
  7. cell membranes
    boundary of an animal cell that separates its internal cytoplasm and organelles from the external environment
  8. cytoplasm
    the interior of an animal cell, not including its nucleus
  9. organelle
    a tiny "organ" within a cell that performs a discrete function necessary to the cell
  10. tissue
    a grouping of like cells that performs a function
  11. system
    a group of organs that work together to perform a unique function
  12. digestion
    the process by which foods are broken down into their component molecules, either mechanically or chemically
  13. absorption
    physiologic process by which molecules of food are taken from the gastrointestinal tract into the circulation
  14. elimination
    the process by which undigested portions of food and waste products are removed from the body
  15. gastrointestinal (GI) tract
    a long, muscular tube consisting of several organs: mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
  16. sphincter
    a tight ring of muscle separating some of the organs of the GI tract and opening in response to nerve signals indicating that food is ready to pass into the next section
  17. cephalic phase
    earliest phase of digestion, in which the brain thinks about and prepared the digestive organs for the consumption of food