Psyc Chapter 17 text

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jarrettmoore
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Psyc Chapter 17 text
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2014-04-12 18:06:10
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chapter 17 textbook
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  1. treatment or therapy
    systematic procedures designed to change abnormal behaviour into more normal behaviour
  2. according to Jerome Frank, what essential features do all forms of therapy have
    • 1. a sufferer who seeks relief from a healer
    • 2. a trained, socially accepted healer, whose expertise is accepted by the sufferer and is or her social group
    • 3. a series of contacts between the healer and the sufferer, through which the healer tries to produce certain changes in the sufferer's emotional state, attitudes, and behaviour. May be done through psychotherapy or biological therapy
  3. psychotherapy
    a treatment system in which a client and therapist use words and acts to overcome the clients psychological difficulties
  4. biological therapy
    the use of physical and chemical procedures to help people overcome psychological difficulties
  5. what groups seek treatement for psychological problems less often
    ethnic minority groups
  6. entering and receiving treatment
    • can come about in many ways.
    • many wait up to two years after they first become aware that they have a problem
    • at least have with psychological disorders never seek treatment
  7. canadian mental health act
    offers guidelines for admitting individuals to psychiatric facilities
  8. deinstitutionalization
    • clinicians concerned about the negative effects of long-term institutionalization
    • a policy
  9. Biological Treatments
    • use chemical and physical methods to help people overcome their psychological problem
    • usually psychiatrists
    • drug therapy, electroconvulsive therapy and psychosurgery - drug most common
  10. drug therapy
    • psyhchotropic drugs
    • four major drug groups used today - antianxiety, antidepressent, antibipolar and antispychotic
    • do not work for everyone
    • risk vs reward
  11. psychotropic drugs
    medications that act primarily on the brain
  12. antianxiety drugs
    psychotropic drugs that reduced tension and anxiety
  13. antidepressant drugs
    psychotropic drugs that lift the mood of depressed people
  14. antibipolar drugs
    psychotropic drugs that help stabilize the modds of people suffering from bipolar disorder
  15. antipsychotic drugs
    • psychotropic drugs that help correct grossly condused or distorded thinking
    • may produce sever movement abnormalities including severe shaking, bizarre looking contractions of the face and body and extreme restlessness
  16. atypical anytipsychotic drugs
    new class of drugs that produce less adverse side effects and work better
  17. electroconvulsive therapy
    • use of electric shock to trigger a brain seizure in hopes of relieving abnormal functioning
    • primarily with people with severe depression
    • can negatively effect short term memory
    • recently two new approaches toat directly stimulate the brain have been developed - vagus nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation - less traumatic 
  18. transcranial magnetic stimulation
    • apparently increases neuron activity in the prefrontal cortex
    • used to treat depression
  19. psychosurgery
    brain surgery often used to hopes of relieving abnormal functioning
  20. trephining
    • first use of brain surgery to treat mental disorders
    • prehistoric practice of chipping a hole in the skull to treat an injury or other disorder
  21. lobotomy
    • surgical practice of cutting the connetions between the frontal lobe and the lower cenres of the brain
    • widely used for cases of schizophrenia in the 30's
    • suffered irreversable effects including seizures, extreme listlessness, stupor and some cases death
  22. deep brain stimulation
    • psychosurgery
    • a procedure in which implanted electrodes deliver constant low stimulation to a small area of the brain; used to treatsevere depression, parkinsons's disease, and epilepsy
    • still expiremental
  23. psychodynamic therapies
    • contends that today's emotional disorder is the result of yesterday's emotional trauma
    • techniques - free association, therapist interpretation, catharsis and working through
  24. free association
    • psychodynamic thearpy technique of allowing clients to freely talk about whatever they want
    • interpret 
    • 3 phenomena are thought to be important - resistance, transference and dreams
  25. resistence - free association
    practice in which clients encounter a block in their free associtations or change the subject so as to avoid a potentially painful discussion
  26. transference - free association
    process through which clients come to act and feel toward the therapist as they did toward important figures in their childhood
  27. dream interpretation - free association
    • freud really liked
    • manifest content ( the consciously remembered dream) vs latent content ( the symbolic meaning)
  28. catharsis - free association
    reliving of past repressed feelings as means of settling internal conflicts and overcoming problems
  29. working through - free association
    examine the same issue over and over
  30. short-term psychodynamic therapies
    • focus on a single problem - dynamic focus
    • speed up version of psychodynamic therapy
  31. relational psychoanalytic therapy
    • a school of psychodynamic thearpy holding that therapists should work to form more equal relationships with clients
    • therapist dislcose things about themselves to try and establish more equal relationships
  32. behavioural therapies
    • usually part of the cognitive-behavioural model - the perseptvie that combines behavrioural and cognitive priniciples to explain and treat psychological disorders
    • but, some causes use just behavioural 
  33. classical conditioning techniques - behavioural therapies
    • intended to change clients dysfunctional reactions to stimuli
    • ex - systematic desensitization - also called exposure treatment
    • shown to reduce phobic reactions
    • been shown to help sexual dysfunction, ptsd, agoraphobia and asthma attacks
  34. systematic desensitization
    • trained in relaxation through deep breathing, calming mental imagery and systematic tensing and releasing of muscles
    • create a fear hierachy and work through it
  35. aversion therapy
    • form of bevarioual therapy - classical conditioning
    • therapy designed to help clients to acquire anxiety responses to stimulit that the clients have been finding too attractive
  36. operant conditioning
    • behavioural therapy
    • therapists constantly provide rewards for appropriate behaviour and withhold for inapproriate behaviour
    • example - token economy
    • sucessful with depression, psychosis, problem behaviours in children, and to teach individuals with autism or intellectual disabilities
  37. modeling techniques
    • behavrioural therapy
    • albert bandura
    • therapists demonstrate appropriate behavrious for clients, clients imitate and reherse and aquire the ability for their own lives
    • been used to acquire or improve social skills and assertiveness
  38. social skills training
    • modeling technique
    • behavioural therapy technique in which therapists serve as models and teachers to help clients acquire desired social behaviours
  39. behavioural therapies in perspective
    • testable
    • having helped specific frears, social deficits and intellectual disabilities
    • limitations - improvements do not always maintain themselves, no effective with psychological disorders
  40. cognitive-behavioural therapies
    assume dysfunctional thinking is at the centre of many psychological disorders, try to help people recognize and change their faulty thinking process.
  41. rational-emotive behavioural therapy
    • ellis
    • designed to help clients discover and change the irrational assumptions that govern their emotions, behaviours, and thinking
    • shown to be effective for those who suffer from anxiety or assertiveness
  42. cognitive therapy
    • beck
    • designed to help clients recognize and change their dysfunctional thoughts and ways of thinking
    • most often used with people who are depressed
    • 2/3 of people improve = to medicine.
    • also works for panic disorder and social anxiety disorder
  43. second wave congnitive behavrioural therapies
    • approach hel clients to accept problematic thoughts rather than judge them, act on them or try to change them. Then hopefully they will just pass through awareness without bothering them
    • applied to generalized anxiety disorder
    • mindfullness - one of todays leading approaches (part of acceptance and commitment therapy)
  44. cognitive-behavrioural therapies in persepctive
    • have been proven effective for treating depression, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, sexual dysnfunctions, and a number of other psychological disorders
    • limitations - they do not help everyone, not sure if it's the behaviour that changes the cognition or the cognition that changes behaviour
  45. humanistic and existential therapies
    believe that psyhological disorders are rooted in self - deceit, humanistic and existential therapists try to help clients look at themselves and their situations more accurately and acceptingly
  46. rogers client centered therapy
    • humanistic therapy designed to help clients experience unconditional positive regard and look at themselves honestly and acceptingly
    • 3 important qualities of the therapist
    • 1. unconidtional positive regard
    • 2. accurate empathy
    • 3. genuineness
    • self actualization
    • not performed well under research
  47. 3 levels of prevention
    • primary - efforst to improve community functioning and policies. goal is to prevent psychological disorders all together
    • secondary - detection and treating in early stages
    • tertiary - provide effective treatment immediately
  48. therapy outcomes tudies
    research that looks at the effects of various treatments

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