DJ Alverson MIDI Midterm

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admphantom
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270161
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DJ Alverson MIDI Midterm
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2014-04-11 02:34:15
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DJ Alverson MIDI Midterm
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DJ Alverson MIDI Midterm
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  1. MIDI and is importance
    • 1) Forced world on click
    • 2) Allowed people to play instruments they couldn't play
    • 3) Allowed us to edit the physical performance level
  2. MIDI & DX7 (1983)
    Strong acceptance of MIDI - need for standardized protocol

    MIDI and DX7 introduced in 1983
  3. MIDI Channels
    16 channels per port per cable. Want more channels = add more ports!
  4. MIDI Values
    0-127 because first bit is used as an identifier for status and data byte
  5. MIDI Note Numbers (Middle C?) Piano Keyboard
    • 21-108 (MIDI Note Numbers)
    • 60 (Middle C)
  6. Velocity
    How fast a key is pressed
  7. MIDI Bytes (Two Types)
    • 1) Data Byte (0)
    • 2) Status Byte (1)
  8. Digital means
    Expressed as numbers
  9. Binary
    0s and 1s
  10. Panic Button
    All notes off!
  11. Monophonic
    One note at a time
  12. Polyphonic
    Two or more notes at a time
  13. Multi-timbral
    More than one sound at a time - simultaneous sounds - usually it means on different channels
  14. Pressure/After Touch
    After you've already sounded the note, then you lean on it a little bit (after touch)

    • Channel Pressure - 2 of them:
    • 1) Channel Pressure Message - everything on that channel will get that message sent
    • 2) Polyphonic Pressure Message - just that note will get the message attached to it
  15. Channel Voice Messages (How many?)
    7

    • 1) Note-On
    • 2) Note-Off
    • 3) Polyphonic Key Pressure
    • 4) Channel Pressure
    • 5) Program Change
    • 6) Pitch Bend Change
    • 7) Control Change
  16. Local Off
    Used to disconnect the controller of a MIDI instrument from its own internal voice generators.
  17. No Velocity (Default Value)
    64
  18. 8 bit words
    Byte

    • 8 bit word = 256 separate values
    • MIDI only uses 7 places of the 8 bit word (it's why the value is 0-127)
  19. MIDI transmits what?
    Commands/Instructions (String of numbers and the device will respond to them as it will)
  20. Encoding/decoding phases of the digitization process center around two processes:
    • 1) Sampling - Act of taking snapshots of a waveform.
    • 2) Quantization - Assigning values to samples that are taken.
  21. Splitting or Mapping
    Cutting the keyboard into zones
  22. Sample Libraries (size and why)
    Big i.e. a piano library (Ivory=40GB) not only has 88 different samples but they're also taken at 24bit/96k with different velocities and the library could come with five different pianos.
  23. Copyright Law
    Secure Digital Music Initiative - Acts as a digital watermark that identifies the copyright owner and provides an electronic key that allows access to the music or information once the original copy has been legally purchased.
  24. Subtractive Synthesis
    Using filters to remove overtones
  25. Additive Synthesis
    Combining the output of two oscillators/operators (FM synthesis)
  26. Virtual Synth
    Software Synthesizers/Virtual Instruments/Devices
  27. RAM
    Random Access Memory

    • How much is enough?
    • As much as you can afford and your system will allow.
  28. LCD
    Liquid Crystal Display

    (LED - Light Emitting Diode)
  29. CRT
    Cathode Ray Tube
  30. 16-bit
    65,536 - bit depth for CD audio (Red Book Burn)
  31. Soundcard Synth
    On motherboard (mobo) built in to the computer or soundcard i.e. Apple soft synths are on the motherboard
  32. Plug-in Protocols
    • RTAS (Real-Time Audio Suite) = Developed for the Native versions of Pro Tools (as opposed to TDM = Time Domain Multiplex)
    • VST (Virtual Studio Technology) = Steinberg
    • MAS (MOTU Audio System)
    • AudioSuite
    • AU (Audio Units)
    • DirectX
  33. FM Synthesis
    • Frequency Modulation - Requires 2 operators
    • 1) Carrier
    • 2) Modulator
  34. CD Quality
    • 16-bit
    • 44.1kHz
  35. Chiff
    Initial breath that makes the instrument sound real
  36. Electronic Instrument Building Blocks
    At the center of the electronic instrument is the CPU. Also, MIDI ports, Data input, Decoder knobs, Storage memory
  37. Operators
    Oscillators in FM
  38. In, Out & Thru
    Hardware jacks on the MIDI device
  39. Word length
    • Bit depth = another word for it (how many steps {values} you can have)
    • 16 for CD
    • 8 for MIDI
  40. Wavetable Synthesis
    Fleet of tiny little sounds and they attach themselves to the front of a synthesized note and fool us into thinking it's an instrument.
  41. Cable Lengths
    • MIDI = 50ft
    • Firewire 400 = 4.5 meters
    • Firewire 800 = 100 meters
    • USB 2.0 = 5 meters
  42. FireWire (who, when-how many devices)
    From Apple, for Apple, by Intel, mid-1990s, 63 devices
  43. USB (what it stands for, HUB? and how many devices)
    • Universal Serial Bus
    • HUB = Cycles inputs (traffic cop)
    • 127 devices
  44. Throughput (FireWire-USB 2.0, 3.0-Thunderbolt)
    • *Firewire 400 = 400 Mbps
    • *Firewire 800 = 800 Mbps
    • USB 1.0 = 1.5 Mbps
    • USB 1.0 (2nd Version) = 12 Mbps
    • *USB 2.0 = 480 Mbps
    • *USB 3.0 = 5 Gbps 
    • USB 3.1 = 10 Gbps
    • *Thunderbolt = 10 Gbps/channel (only 3 years old)
    • Thunderbolt 2 = 20 Gbps
  45. Keyboard Controllers
    • How many sounds are on a keyboard controller?
    • ZERO!! 0!! NONE!!
  46. Stereo Interleaved
    2 sides of L-R are intrinsically linked forever
  47. Nibble
    4 bits
  48. "2 bars" in Digital Performer
    Count-In

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