pharm test immune part 2

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Author:
alicia0309
ID:
270163
Filename:
pharm test immune part 2
Updated:
2014-04-11 02:56:21
Tags:
pharm
Folders:
PHARM TEST
Description:
immune system part 2
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  1. choosing an antibiotic
    • lab tests C&S (tells which Abx to use)
    • Broad spectrum Abx (cover many bacteria)
    • Narrow Spectrum Abx (only used if have result C&S)
    • Host Defenses
    • Tissue Conditions
    • Allergies
    • Pregnancy
    • G6PD deficiency (metabolize ABx different and some Abx can be toxic)
  2. PCN

    Mech of Action
    • disrupts the cell wall of the bacteria. Allows water to enter the cell and kills the organism
    • Beta-Lactam ring and beta-lactamase
    • Can combine with beta-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanate
  3. PCN

    route/Admin

    Adverse Effects
    PO, IM, IV

    • AE:
    • Minor, usually N/V
    • High incidence of allergy
  4. PCN

    Contraindications
    • Allergy
    • use in caution with renal disease
  5. interactions PCN
    • decrease the effects of oral contraceptives
    • decreases the effects of Aminoglycoside Abxs
  6. Cephalosporins

    Mech of Action
    • Beta Lactrim Ring
    • inhibit bacterial cell wall snythesis

    • 4 generations
    • each one more potent and broader spectrum than the one before it
  7. Cephalosporins

    route
    Adverse effects
    IM, PO, IV

    • AE: N/V/D
    • Anaphylaxis
    • 1st generation can cause nephrotoxicity
  8. Cephalosporin

    Contraindications
    • Hypersensitivity
    • Severe Renal Disease
  9. Interactions with Cephalosporins
    • Nephrotoxic drugs
    • increase action of Warfarin
  10. Tetracyclines

    Mech of action
    Binds to the bacterial ribosome to inhibit growth of the cell
  11. Tetracyclines

    Admin/Route

    Adverse Effects
    IV, PO

    • AE: tendency to affect normal flora
    • N/V/D
    • Discoloration of teeth
    • Photosensitivity
  12. interactions

    tetracyclines
    • Iron Supplements
    • Contraceptives
  13. Macrolides
    Mech Of Action
    inhibits protein synthesis by binding to bacterial ribosomes
  14. Macrolides

    Admin/Route

    Adverse Effects
    • PO, IV
    • Stomach acids destroy so they are coated
    • they do not absorb or become active until they reach the small intestine

    • AE: Vomiting
    • Hearing Loss
    • Dysrhythmias at high doses of IV route
  15. macrolides
    interactions
    • Statins (increase risk of rhabdo)
    • Ethanol (decrease absorption of Abx)
    • Anesthetics and anticonvulsants (increase absorption of Abx and increase rick of ototoxicty)
  16. Aminpglysides

    mech of action
    • inhibit bacterial protein synthesis
    • reserved for serious infections

    VERY STRONG
  17. Aminoglycosides

    route
    adverse effects
    IV or IM for systemic infection

    • AE: N/V/D
    • Ototoxicity
    • Ringing in the ears, Headache, dizziness thayt can be permanent
    • Nephrotoxicity
  18. Fluoroquinolones

    Mech of action
    inhibits bacterial enzymes that affect DNA synthesis
  19. Fluoroquinolones

    Admin/route

    adverse effects
    PO, IV, eye drops, ear drops

    • AE:   N/V/D
    • Photosensitivity
    • Anaphylaxis
    • Tendon Rupture, most common achilles
  20. Fluoroquinolones

    contraindications

    interactions
    • hypersensitivity
    • pregnancy cat C

    • Warfarin
    • Antacids. iron, vitamins (decrease absorption of Abx)
    • Caffeine (increases the effect of caff)
  21. Sulfonamides

    Mech of ations
    Suppress bacterial growth by inhibiting the synthesis of folic acid, Bacteria require folic acid for rapid cell division and growth

    available over 60 years
  22. Sulfonamides
    admin/route

    adverse effects
    Topical, PO, IV

    • AE:    N/V/D
    • Anaphylaxis
    • Stevens Johnson Syndrome
    • Hepatic Necrosis
    • Hyperkalemia
  23. Sulfonamides

    Contraindications
    • Hypersensitivity
    • Pregnancy
    • Hyperkalemia

    • interactions: K+ sparing Diuretics
    • Oral contraceptives
    • Phenytoin
  24. Carbapenems

    Mech of action
    • Very Broad Spectrum
    • Beta-Lactrim ring that is very resistant to beta-lactimase
  25. carbapenems

    admin/route

    adverse effects
    IV

    • AE:   Pseudomembranous colitis
    • confusion
    • seizures
  26. what is the treatment regimen for tuberculosis
    initialphase: 2 months of Isoniazid, Rafampin,

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