Plant and animal traits relevant to pollination

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  1. what is the purpose of attracting pollinators
    to attain outcrossing
  2. in all hermaphroditic spp, outcrossing means what
    to receive conspecific pollen from other plants and to place pollen on visitors
  3. what are two factors that select for different degrees of selectivity and visitor manipulation
    • heterospecific pollen transfer is non-adaptive at best- mechanisms that constrain visitor guilds to fewer but more effective pollinators are expected. 
    • self-fertilization through pollen transfer within or among flowers on a plant can reduce the benefits of pollinator attraction, mechanisms that reduce the risk of such transfers are expected
  4. why is self fertilization disadvantageous relative to cross- fertilization?
    • 1. inbreeding depression will lower the fitness of selfed progeny. 
    • 2. pollen spent on self-fertilisation may reduce the male fitness of a plant, a process known as pollen discounting.
  5. the hermaphroditic condition of most angiosperms increases the risk of what
    intrafloral or intraplant pollination
  6. what do physiological self-incompatibility mechanisms do?
    act most commonly at stigma level or style, blocking pollen-tube penetration or retarding pollen-tube growth
  7. self-incompatibility mechanisms block the possibility of selfing, but may be disadvantageous when
    under circumstances where seed production by outcrossing is uncertain.
  8. a mixed strategy of what may provide higher fitness
    outcrossing and facultative selfing
  9. pre-stigmatic mechanisms are common, what do they do and what do they contribute to?
    control pollen pickup and deposition based on temporal and spatial spacing of male and female function. contribute to elevated probability of outcrossing
  10. hermaphroditic flowers commonly have the male and female functional phases offset, so that what happens
    a flower at any one point in time either only presents pollen or is receptive to pollen (dichogamy)
  11. What may permit selfing if cross-pollination hasn't already occurred
    there can be a complete separation of phases, but partial overlap late in floral life may permit selfing
  12. Timing of the shift from one phase to the other is commonly fixed but in some instances can be determined by what
    the completion of the first function; the complete removal of pollen in a protrandrous flower is necessary before the stigma is exposed
  13. rate of pollen removal speeds what ?
    transition to a female phase
  14. in multiflowered plants, selfing can also occur through transfer among flowers, which is called what
  15. geitonogamy can occur unless what
    sexual phases are synchronised across all open flowers
  16. when phases aren't synchronized, levels of selfing tend to increase with what
    with the number of flowers as pollinators stay longer within a plant
  17. the staggered opening of flowers is possible with subsets of phase-synchronised flowers open at a time, but such staggered patterns may involve what
    tradeoffs in selection for a large display size at the plant level
  18. an alternative to dichogamy is what
    spatial separation of male and female floral parts (herkogamy)
  19. in hermaphroditic flowers, herkogamy is commonly indicated by what
    the unequal exsertion of stigmas and stamens from a floral mouth
  20. there is often considerable intraspecific variation in stigma-anther distance, it is linked to what
    variation in the selfing rate
  21. herkogamy may be unlikely when
    in instances where highly specific placement of pollen on the visitor is required for successful deposition
  22. what is monoecy
    production of separate male and female flowers within a plant
  23. the evolution of monoecy further increases the possibility of inbreeding avoidance by independent spacing of male and female floral parts, and it offers the possibility of what
    temporal staggering
  24. with separation of sexual functions, the risk of what increases
    that visitors will not visit flowers of both sexes, especially if only pollen is provided as a pollinator's reward
  25. why will it probably also increase the required investment in pollinator rewards
    a plant of this kind needs to obtain twice as many visits as a plant with dual function flowers to obtain the same cumulative number of pollen collections and deposits
  26. what may discount this cost in part?
    higher efficiency during each visit in unisexual flowers and lower levels of geitonogamy
  27. What traits in flowers reflect high rates of evolutionary change
    extraordinary range of shapes, colours and scents
  28. attractants can be put into three groups
    visual, olfactory or auditory cues
  29. floral shape can be sorted functionally based on what
    the number of axes of symmetry and the presence or absence of a depth dimension
  30. the two main categories are radial and bilateral symmetry which are also referred to as what
    actinomorphic and zygomorphic
  31. in radial symmetry how many axes can be laid through the centre of the flower
  32. a bilaterally symmetrical flower contains more information by only having what
    a single symmetry axis running vertically through the face of the flower
  33. basal angiosperms are radially symmetrical, whereas zygomorphy has what in the course of diversification
    evolved and been lost repeatedly
  34. the bilateral condition potentially allows the plant to manipulate the approach patterns of and selectively reward visitors because what
    a visitor that learns to use the symmetry axis to approach the flower in a stereotypical way can find and extract a reward more quickly.
  35. bilateral symmetry is often combined with concealment of nectar or other rewards in a cavity or spur behind the floral face, this further increases what
    the difference in reward potential between naive and experienced visitors.
  36. invertebrate pollinators have a limited memory capacity for flowers, and temporary specialisation on one zygomorphic flower will what
    increase their foraging rate thus reinforcing intraspecific pollen flow
  37. because visitors prefer to approach flower from one angle to minimise handling time, there will be what?
    fewer optimal arrangements of stamens and stigmas,potentially making for more effective use by the plant of each visitor
  38. the depth dimension reinforces what
    selectivity and manipulation of visitors
  39. the concealment of a reward requires the ability to what
    learn how to find the path, and also the appropriate mouthparts to reach the reward
  40. two other properties of shape commonly matter in pollinator attraction, what are they
    • pendant flowers: evolved in many lineages, highly selective as many flower visitors lack ability to find floral reward, losses to parasites may be reduced. 
    • subtle shape differences: used by some visitors to gauge potential reward value of individual flowers.
  41. What happens with the bowl shaped flowers of Anemonopsis macrophylla?
    contain pollen collected by bumblebees over course of several days. as the flower shape changes, approaching bees assess flower shape from a distance and selectively visit younger flowers whose pollen supplies are less likely to be depleted
  42. within most plant spp, pollinators generally select in favour of what
    larger flowers, large inflorescences and more open flowers on each plant
  43. traits that specifically increase perceived size include what
    peripheral sterile flowers in the inflorescence of Viburnum that increase pollen removal, sterile ray flowers in asters, whose hypertrophied petals increase the disk area
  44. display size at the plant level also varies depending on what
    whether multiflowered plants produce flowers in sequence or in a simulataneous burst of mass flowering.
  45. simultaneous bursts of mass flowering are strikingly apparent in many animal-pollinated trees, where what are apparent from long distances
    isolated trees in bloom
  46. what counteracts selection for a large display?
    the risk of intraplant pollen transport increases and greater attraction of parasitic organisms such as herbivores may increase as well
  47. what is one way to increase display and attraction without increasing the risk of geitonogamy?
    retention of old, non-rewarding flowers, sometimes in conjunction with colour differences between rewarding and non-rewarding flowers.
  48. colour changes and retention have what in many plant families
    evolved repeatedly
  49. fluctuating asymmetry is widely held to reflect what
    the inability of an individual to maintain perfectly balanced development in response to its environment.
  50. in fluctuating asymmetry, symmetrical individuals are likely to be of better what for the specific environment
    genetic quality
  51. Moller 1995 manipulated symmetry and size of the two basal petals in Epilobium angustifolium and found what?
    +ive effects of both symmetry and floral size on the rate of visitation by bumblebees. the standing crop of nectar was -ively correlated with asymmetry
  52. what does moller's study show us
    it provides a direct reason why pollinators should use floral asymmetry in deciding whether and when to visit a flower. the preference may be innate or learned depending on the animals involved.
  53. plants employ a range of colours that extends beyond the rainbow, having floral parts or adjacent structures that reflect what
    from near UV (~350nm) to deep red (~700nm)
  54. in addition to pigment based colours, whites can be obtained by what, providing high brightness even under low light conditions
    whites can be obtained by flat reflectance from epidermal cells and glossy surfaces
  55. such bright whites are common in species that attract visitors when
    at dusk or in darkness; under low light conditions spectral differences are poorly perceived, whereas bright objects may remain apparent
  56. combinations of colours do what that adds to visibility
    sharp contrast within flowers
  57. a common pattern in flowers with concealed rewards is what where sexual parts and rewards are located,
    distinctively coloured spectrally pure region surrounded by less pure areas.
  58. such patches are commonly referred to as
    nectar guides
  59. the entry into nectar guides triggers what
    innate proboscis extension and probing for food in some bee spp.
  60. colour preferences have both _____ and ______ components
    innate and learned
  61. how potential visitors perceive a given flower depends on what
    sensitivity and discrimination ability in different parts of the wavelength spectrum.
  62. most species whose visual pigments have been analysed have
    trichromatic or tetrachromatic vision
  63. High evolutionary plasticity has been documented with closely related spp what
    varying dramatically in spectral range and degree of resolution, even the two sexes within a species having different visual pigments
  64. colour vision plays a critical role in several functions including what
    host search and mate selection
  65. perceived floral colour and pattern will often what among potential insect pollinators, making generalisations about their powers of discrimination difficult.
  66. strong selection on floral colour may at best be expected when
    when the visitor guild is simple and differences among spp considerable
  67. what may be more important than identical perception
    relative distinction of flowers and their functional subunits from surrounding areas
  68. there is the potential that floral colour may be under selection for what
    repellent properties on parasitic visitors such as herbivores or poor pollinators
  69. volatiles are a common feature in flowers and are mostly produced in combination with
    visual attractants
  70. floral scents are mixtures of what
    small compounds that vary in molecular weight and volatility
  71. major classes of volatiles include what
    mono and sesquiterpenes, fatty acid derivatives and phenolics
  72. more unusual classes such as sulfides appear especially in plants attracting what
    distinctive visitor groups
  73. scent production is _____ specific
  74. floral scent figures prominently in ____ distance attraction and especially in spp that attrtact pollinators such as ____ and ____ in situations of partial or complete ____
    • long
    • moths
    • bats
    • darkness
  75. the size of the source is likely to affect what
  76. distance in which a scent plume is present to be traced back
  77. in the noctuid moth Hadena bicruris, entry into a floral scent trail causes what to happen
    triggers upwind flight towards source, activates visually mediated search for white objects resembling white flowers of Silene latifolia (brantjes 1978)
  78. scent directly affects what at short range and serves in what
    directly affects visitor behaviour and serves in visitor conditioning
  79. What happens in Cimicifuga simplex (Pellmyr 1986)
    two scent components prolong duration of visits by nymphalid butterflies, increasing probability of pollination
  80. scent is also more readily learned in flora reward than any other type of floral trait, leading to what
    short term selectivity
  81. this short term selectivity increases the probability that what will happen
    pollen collected on a scented flower will reach a conspecific flower
  82. the effect of scent learning can magnify what
    levels of visitation
  83. bumble bees and other social bees learn the floral scent carried by a successful returning forager and use it to do what
    localising flowers of the rewarding spp.
  84. floral scent may also be under selection from the effects of interactions with antagonists. _____ effects on parasitic visitors are known
  85. many floral scent compounds such as terpenes, figure prominently in plant _____ _________ against herbivores
    chemical defences
  86. flowers can serve as
    Sound reflectors
  87. the flower of Mucuna holtonii, has an erect petal that does what?
    it reflects sound pulses produced by echolocating bats that visit the flowers for their copious nectar (von Helversen and von Helversen 1999).
  88. the most common reward is
  89. the primary content of nectar is water and carbohydrates of phloem origin, with what constituting the sugars in most spp?
    monosaccharides glucose and fructose and disaccharides sucrose
  90. total sugar concentration is usually between
  91. modest amounts of what have also been detected, especially in flowers that attract carcass feeders
    amino acids
  92. some visitors detect and preferentially feed on nectars laced with
    amino acid
  93. the water itself is a potentially valuable reward, especially where
    in arid conditions
  94. nectar production shows a strong what pattern
  95. pollen serves as a primary reward for pollen collecting/eating flower visitors such as what
    solitary bees, beetles and some flies.
  96. pollen more commonly functions as a secondary reward for who
    bees that primarily track nectar sources.
  97. pollen is a rich source of nitrogen and is a cost to the plant for two reasons, what are they
    loss of critical nutrient and direct loss of genetic material
  98. adaptions to reduce _____ losses to parasites are expected
  99. poricidal anthers which never dehisce, release pollen when
    in response to sonic vibration by bees
  100. such anthers, as well as gradual opening in dehiscent anthers, facilitates what, which increases what
    facilitates gradual dispensation of pollen which can increase male repro success by reducing risk of visitor grooming
  101. what percentage of angiosperms provide fatty oils as a reward to solitary bees who use it as a provision for their larvae and possibly for nest building
  102. two large tropical genera, Dalechampia and Clusia, contain species that produce what as a rewards for solitary bees that use them in nest-building for structural and antifungal purposes
    diterpenoid resins
  103. neotropical members of seven v different families provide what collected by male euglossine bees
    fragrant terpenoids and aromatics
  104. attraction is highly specific among the 130+ euglossine bee spp depending on what
    the exact blend of volatiles produced
  105. specialised floral tissue, containing high concentrations of starch, sugar, lipids or protein is scattered among angiosperms but is particularly common in what
    basal families such as the Annonaceae
  106. because consumption of floral tissue requires chewing, who are frequently involved
    beetles, bats and even birds that can tear tissue
  107. in a few instances, the reward is seeds consumed by
    pollinators' progeny
  108. granivory is very common, often beginning when
    while the seeds mature on the mother plant
  109. granivory is clear example of what
    evolutionary dilemma facing plant requiring pollinators: parasitic insects can use required attractants to find flowers.
  110. in a few instances, seed parasites have also become pollinators, give two examples
    yucca moths and fig wasps
  111. even though they constitute a substantial portion of all angiosperms, non rewarding plant spp are mostly what
    minor components of plant communities in which they grow
  112. spp that deceptively advertise food rewards may either coexist with a rewarding model or rely on what
    innate or learned reward cues, often in habitats with few other flowers
  113. flower colour polymorphism may be adaptive in such models of deception, as long as visitors regard the different morphs as what
    novel potentially rewarding flowers
  114. a fair number of plants don't mimic flower, but instead they mimic what
    pollinator mates or oviposition sites
  115. flowers of european fly orchids and caladeniine australian hammer orchids provide what
    visual olfactory and tactile cues mistaken by naive wasp males for conspecific females, pollination happens as males attempt copulation with the flowers.
  116. male insects generally emerge before femlaes, once females emerge, males learn to distinguish the real from the fake, so there is selection for plants to what
    flower during a narrow window
  117. oviposition site mimics most commonly attract species whose larvae feed on
  118. what are other examples of brood site mimicry
    visual and olfactory resemblances to gill fungi, attracting fungus gnats and visual mimicry of aphid clusters of flowers, attracting visitors whose larvae feed on aphids
  119. it is likely these interactions are ______ rather than antagonistic
  120. in food-based deception, there is a potential cost of
    lowered yield rate with the inclusion of non-rewarding flowers
  121. as long as deceptive flowers are relatively _______ their effect is likely to be trivial
  122. there is little reason to assume that visits to mate mimicking flowers carries a fitness cost apart from when
    sperm is expended in the interaction
  123. in oviposition site mimicry, visitors often expend eggs during the visit and these may be candidates for antagonistic interactions, where what can be expected
    selection can be expected on avoiding the mimics
Card Set:
Plant and animal traits relevant to pollination
2014-04-11 14:14:51
traits pollination
animal and plant interaction
floral traits that mediate outcrossing, attractants, visual cues: shape, size, size and shape, colours; olfactory cues: chemistry, roles in attraction; auditory cues; rewards; non-rewarding deceptive plants
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