Social Learning Explanations for Crime
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With whom is the social learning explanation closely related and what did this person suggest?
- Albert Bandura
- Behaviours are learned through observing models
- Whether or not someone is chosen as model depends on a number of factors such as their status
What is the biggest factor in determining whether or not a model's behaviour is imitated?
- Vicarious reinforcement
- Weather or not the model is rewarded for said behaviour
What might also influence the likelihood of a model's behaviour being imitated?
- How similar they are to the imitator
- Their status
What was the aim of the Bandura, Ross & Ross study of 1963
To investigate the potential of modelling by exposing children to various scenarios
What was the methodology employed during the Bandura study of 1963?
- Children watched a film of an adult aggressively treating a bobo doll
- The consequences of the adults behaviour were varied under 4 conditions
- After viewing the film the children were put in a room with the doll
What were the results of the 1963 Bandura study?
- The highest level of imitation occurred with the children who watched a model of their sex who was praised
- The lowest levels of aggressive behaviour occurred with the children who watched the model get punished for their actions
What can be concluded from Bandura's 1963 study?
Aggressive behaviour can be learned through processes such as observation and imitation
How can the Social Learning explanation of crime be said to be nomothetic?
- It stressed the uniqueness of the individual and suggests that different people may commit the same crimes for different reasons
- It is argued that each individual's motivations and expectations are based on their learning experiences and mediating cognitive factors
How can the SLT be criticised based on cognitive factors?
- They underplay factors such as decision making in criminal behaviour
- Some SLT psychologists have modified the theory to take into account cognitive processes to a greater extent
What issues arise regarding SLT research methods?
- Lab studies lack ecological validity as they are too artificial
- Demand characteristics are more likely
How can the SLT explanation be said to be deterministic?
An individuals behaviour is completely determined by their learning experiences and does not acknowledge the possibility of freedom of choice
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