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Define instinct and discuss how it is different from learned responses and physiological reactions
- Instinct: is a hard wired reaction, unconscious response
- learned response and physiological reaction: are conscious decisions
Describe how drive reduction and instinct theories of motivation are different from each other
- drive reduction: we are motivated to reduce any needs that arise
- example: when hungry, you want to eat, when tired, you want to sleep, etc. the need to balance out.
- Instinct theories of motivation: a snap response
- example: you are hungry, and you see someone eating, so you take their food.
Describe the fundamental assumptions of drive reduction and instinct theories of motivation
- drive reduction: we're motivated to reduce any needs that arise...
- we crave homostatious
- instinct theories: natural responses
Define homeostasis as it relates to drive reduction theories
Homeostasis: the need to be balanced. evened out
List the major stages of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and be able to recognize an example of each
: acronym of maslow hierarchy
- 1)Physiological needs
- 2)security and safety
- 4) esteem
- 5) self actualization - fulfilled your potential
Describe the effects of ghrelin and leptin on hunger and eating
Ghrelin: hunger hormones, makes you hungry, and desire to eat
Leptin: fullness hormones, makes you feel full and satiated
Describe the effects of ablating or damaging the ventromedial and lateral hypothalamus in rats
Lateral Hypothalamus - makes the rats skinny, because it controls the ghrelin
Ventromedial hypothalamus - makes the rats fat, because it controls the leptin
List the symptoms of anorexia
unhealthy skin, loss of hair, hair on skin, brittle bones
List the symptoms of bulimia
bad teeth, overweight, throat
List the negative outcomes and consequences of anorexia and bulimia
anorexia: depression, loss of period, death, osteoporosis, heart failure
bulimia: teeth loss, teeth decay, throat
Identify the different causes of bulimia and anorexia
- bulimia: very chaotic, no control over life,
- anorexia: very controlled, ridge, high pressure environment,
Describe the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and be able to recognize examples of each
- Intrinsic motivation: (internal) coming from you.
- example: makes you feel good, desire to be the best.
- extrinsic motivation: (external) coming from outside.
- example: working gives you a paycheck.
Describe how extrinsic motivators can undermine motivation
- when the extrinsic (external motivator) stops, the motivation to continue the action stops.
- example: working out, and going to the gym to impress a girl, and then the girl starts dating someone else. so working out stops
Describe how the two-factor theory of emotion expanded upon the James-Lange theory and the Cannon-Bard theory
Describe the significance of Ekman and Friesen’s studies of emotional expression
facial features are universal
Describe the facial feedback hypothesis
the six human emotions are universal-
your body provides feedback on how your body should feel..
Describe how emotion is important to making decisions—see Damasio’s experiments with brain damaged patients
when people have a brain injury, that effects their emotions, they have problems functioning