psychology ch 9 study guide
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Describe the difference between phonemes, morphemes, and syntax in language
- phonemes: are small speach sounds a baby makes
- Morphemes: smallest meaningful unit of language
- example - a letter... such as "A"
syntax: a child doesn't learn word order, but the the
Describe the language ability that babies have that is much better than adults’
the ability to learn any sound, and every sound.
Describe language milestones such as cooing, babbling, fast mapping and telegraphic speech
telegraphic speech: very short and broken speech (more milk, or Throw ball, or feed me!)
Fast Mapping: A phenomenon whereby children can map a word onto an underlying concept after only a single exposure
Define prototypes, exemplars, and concepts and distinguish them from each other
- Prototypes theory: The "best" or "most Tyipcal member: of a category
- when making a category of something, such as a dog, or a car, we pick a prototype of a dog, or car based on it possessing most or all of the combining features...
Exemplars theory: (example) a theory of categorization that argues that we make category judgements by comparing a new instance with stored memories for other instances of the category
- Basically the difference between them is that Prototype theory suggests that when we see something new, we compare that new stimuli against the prototype we have in our mind.
- where as exemplar (good example) theory suggests that when we see new stimuli, we compare it against a whole category
Describe the differences between family resemblance theory, prototype theory, and exemplar theory
family resemblance theory: the theory that members of a category have features that appear to be characteristic of category members but may not be possessed by every member
Be able to recognize an example of category-specific deficit
Category- specific deficit: an inability to recognize objects that belong to a particular category, although the ability to recognize objects outside the category is undisturbed
Describe availability bias and be able to recognize an example
- availability bias: seeing things happen in media, and overestimating how often they happen.
- example: believing murders, racisms, 2nd hand smoke, peanut allergies, gluten- intolerance is more prevalent than it is
Describe conjunction fallacy and be able to recognize an example
- Conjunction fallacy: two things are more likely to happen than one of the things...
- example: in class example of a woman being more likely to be a bank teller and a feminist, than her to only be a bank teller
Describe representativeness heuristic and be able to recognize an example
Representativeness heuristic: certain traits that represent your idea of a person. uses your history/pattern of people to make a decision.
Describe framing effects and be able to recognize an example
- Framing effect: the theory that people have a different reaction to an event, based off of the idea, if it is given a positive spin versus a negative spin...
- example: the use of words the media uses to describe the events based off their political beliefs
- pro-life vs pro-choice
Describe the difference between the availability and representativeness heuristics
availability has to do with how much events stick out in our head... such as breast cancer being sticking out in our head... vs how likely they are to happen... breast cancer occurs far less likely than heart disease, but everyone in the class though more woman died from breast cancer
where as representativeness is based on certain traits making us decide that something matches what we "know" a person fits.
Recite the characteristics of System 1 processing and System 2 processing be able to recognize examples of each
- System 1: use of past experience. fast, unconscious... prone to mistakes
- example - a doctor relies on past experience to make decisions
- System 2: logical reasoning. slow, conscious, takes effort. more accurate
- example: taking time to do engineering calculations
Describe the strengths and weaknesses of System 1 processing
System 1 strengths: less effort, fast,
Describe the strengths and weaknesses of System 2 processing
system 2 strengths: can be used in novel(new) situations, less mistakes,
Describe the differences between Gardner’s and the two factor theories of intelligence.
Gardners - says there is 8 (possibly 9)
two factor theories says their is two.
Rephrase the definitions of fluid and crystallized intelligence in your own words and describe their differences.
fluid intelligence: good reasoning, able to adapt easily, problem solving
Crystallized intelligence: facts and knowledge about a specific interest. specialized intelligence
Recite the definitions of reliability and validity and discuss how they are different.
reliability: consistency of a measure. A test is considered reliable
Validity: actually measuring what you set out to measure
Recite the original definition of IQ and give its formula—describe how it is different from deviation IQ
100(Mental age/physical age)
deviation IQ: is your IQ score/average score of someone your age
Describe why identical twins do not always score the same on intelligence tests
because they aren't always together. they experience a similar, but different life.
one might be sick, meet different people, have different teachers. eat, and go to the bathroom seperately... etc
Describe Rosenthal’s and Jacobsen’s findings
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