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define metabolic syndrome.
pre-diabetic state defined by a set on diagnostic criteria that mark individuals at increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease
what are some other names for metabolic syndrome? (3)
- syndrome X
- insulin-resistance syndrome
- beer belly syndrome
how does the progression of diabetes/CVD occur from metabolic syndrome?
- metabolic syndrome
The presence of 3 or more of these risk factors indicates diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. what are they? (5)
- elevated waist circumference
- elevated triglycerides
- reduced HDL cholesterol
- elevated blood pressure
- elevated fasting plasma glucose
how does abdominal obesity (visceral obesity) lead to the development of CVD and diabetes?(cardiometabolic risk factors)
adipocytes that have reached their threshold of fat storage respond by secreting inflammatory substances called adipokines that interfere with the insulin-driven transport system
what is insulin? what is its function?
- hormone produced in pancreas
- body breaks down food into glucose ( cell's main energy source)
- cell cannot use glucose without insulin
define insulin resistance. How does this lead to hyperglycemia?
- muscles, fats and liver cells cannot use insulin
- sensing body still needs insulin, pancreas keeps producing more and more
- eventually it cant keep up and glucose builds up in bloodstream
how does hypertension cause atherosclerosis?
mechanical stress that hypertension exerts on the arteries favors chronic endothelial damage and the onset of atherosclerosis
what are the complications of metabolic syndrome?
"metabolic susceptibility" relates to what 2 factors?
genetic and racial factors
metabolic syndrome incidence increases with?
age and parallels the increase in obesity
what are the 5 risk factors for metabolic syndrome?
- age: increases with age
- race: more common in blacks and Mexican-Americans
- obesity: BMI greater than 25
- history of diabetes: family history of type 2 diabetes or diabetes during pregnancy
- other diseases: hypertension, CVD
who has the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Canada?
what are the 3 concepts of underlying causes responsible for epidemic of metabolic syndrome?
- environment causes
- insulin resistance
what is a primary intervention for metabolic syndrome? (3)
- weight reduction
- change in dietary choices
- increase in physical activity
what are some secondary prevention methods for metabolic syndrome? (2)
- public education
- screening for at risk individuals: with blood pressure, family history, tobacco use
what is the tertiary prevention method for metabolic syndrome?
- minimize risk of type 2 diabetes and CVD by treatment of each individual component:
- glucose tolerance
- insulin resistance
- lipid disorders