Physiology Exam 5

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  1. Urinary system has 6 organs
    • -paired kidneys
    • -urethra
    • -bladder
    • -ureters
  2. Kidneys
    • On posterior abdominal wall at the level of vertebra T12-L3
    • Renal a., renal v., and ireter enter and exit through hilus
    • Each kidney weights 160g and about 10cm long
    • Containing about 1.2million nephrons
  3. Nephron
    • Functional Excretory unit of kidney
    • Where urine is formed
  4. Kidney is protected by 3 layers of CT
    • Fibrous renal facia, binds the kidney to the abdominal wall
    • The adipose capsule, a layer of fat, cushion the kidney and holds it in place
    • The renal capsule, fibrous sac enclose the kidney anchored at the hilum and protect the kidney from trauma and infection
  5. Primary Function
    Excretion of metabolic wastes (most are nitrogenous), especially urea
  6. The C shaped renal parenchyma is divided into two zones
    • Cortex (the outer rim)
    • Medulla
  7. Renal Columns
    Extensions of the cortex
  8. Medulla
    • Consists of pyramids terminating in papillae
    • Divided into 6-10 renal pyramid
    • One pyramid and the overlying cortex constitute one lobe of the kidney
  9. Blood Supply
    Renal artery > segmental artery > interlobar artery > arcuate artery > interlobular artery > afferent arteriole > glomerular capillaries > efferent arteriole > peritubular capillaries > corresponding veins > renal vein > inferior venae cavae > right atrium of heart
  10. Nephron consists of 2 parts
    • Corpuscle (glomerulus capillaries and glomerular capsule)
    • Renal tubular (glomerular capsule also called Bowman's capsule)
  11. Nephron Structure
    • Bowman's capsule
    • Proximal Convoluted tubule
    • Nephron loop ( with thick and thin segments)
    • Distal convoluted tubule
    • Collecting duct (shared by several nephrons)
  12. Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
    • In cortex region
    • Longest
    • Simple cuboidal epithelium with microvilli
    • Involved in absorbtion
  13. Nephron Loop
    • Located in medulla
    • Thick Segment: simple cuboidal epithelium, active transport of salt
    • Thin Segment: simple squamous epithelium, very permeable to water
  14. Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
    • In cortex region
    • Shorter than PCT
    • Cuboidal epithelium with NO microvilli
  15. Collecting Duct
    • Pass down into medulla region
    • Lined with simple cuboidal epithelium
    • Several collecting ducts merge to form large papillary ducts
    • About 30 of these drain from each papilla into minor calyx
  16. Cortical and Juxamedullary Nephron
    • cortical nephron is beneath the renal capsule, they have very short or no nephron loop
    • 15% of nephrons are juxtamedullary nephron, close to medulla, and have very long loop
    • nephron loop maintaining a salinity gradient in the medulla, helps the body conserve water
  17. Innervation-renal nerve
    • arises from the superior mesenteric ganglion (T10-T11)
    • Innervate arterioles (afferent and efferent)
    • Sympathetic fibers: regulate the blood flow in and out of each nephron thus control the rate of filtration and urine formation
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Physiology Exam 5
2014-04-11 19:49:28
Physiology College

Physiology Exam
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