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By the school years, low-SES children in the United States are, on the average, ____________________________
about 1/2 to 1 inch shorter than their economically advantaged counterparts
Poor diet _______________________
depresses the body's immune system, making children more susceptible to disease
In the United States, ____________ percent of infant seats and ___________percent of child booster seats are improperly used
Preschoolers' wariness of new foods is ________________
normal and adaptive
Children's creation of ______________ was once viewed as a sign of maladjustment, but current research challenges this assumption
Four-year-old Marly is playing with her toy cars. She favors the blue car, but plays with the green car for at least a few minutes. She says, "I don't want the green one to get lonely." This is an example of _______________
During a conservation-of-liquid task, when asked why he thinks there is more water in the taller glass, 5-year-old Gus points out that the water level is higher in the taller glass than in the shorter glass but neglects to mention that this change in height is compensated by changes in width. This example demonstrates a limitation of preoperational thought known as _________________
Vygotsky's theory stresses the __________ of
Most research indicates tat young children use private speech _______________________________________
when tasks are appropriately challenging
What percentage of preschoolers are diagnosed with tooth decay?
What percentage of 18 year olds are diagnosed with tooth decay?
How is handedness established?
- position in the uterus
What are the hormones that are related to growth?
What is TSH?
- Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
- Second hormone generated by pituitary gland
- Thyroxine is produced by the thyroid gland
- Thyroxine helps with brain development and partners with the growth hormone to have the best effect on development
What happens if someone doesn't have enough TSH?
brain problems can occur
What is GH?
- Growth Hormone
- It's necessary from birth on to develop body tissues
- It also stimulates liver and new portions of the skeleton to make IGF-1
What is IGF-1?
- Insulin-like Growth Factor
- It triggers cell duplication throughout the entire body
What percentage of children have GH or IGF deficiency?
What is psychosocial dwarfism?
- A growth disorder
- Usually appears between 2 and 15 years of age
- Caused by extreme emotional deprivation
- Characterized by:
- -decreased GH secretion
- -very short stature
- -immature skeletal age
- -serious adjustment problems
What is released during sleep?
How long does it generally take to regain one night's loss of sleep?
What percentage of children have nightmares?
50% of children have nightmares
What stage of sleep do nightmares occur?
What percentage of children are sleep walkers?
What percentage of children have night terrors?
What stage of sleep do night terrors occur?
Stage 4 REM
What is malnutrition related to?
- Attention issues
- Poor academic achievements
- Health concerns (anemia, etc.)
How many children under the age of 5 die in the world?
- 10 million children
- 98% are in developing countries
- 70% of those children in developing countries die from disease
What reduces the incidence and risk of sever and prolonged diarrhea?
What percentage of preschoolers in the USA aren't immunized?
- 30% of those preschoolers can't because their parents can't afford it
- some parents don't want their kids to be immunized because they think it leads to autism or because of religious reasions
What is the leading cause of childhood death in industrialized countries?
The USA has the highest rate of _____________ compared to other industrialized countries
What can help prevent childhood injuries?
- watch over kids more
- make the kids more self-aware ("no! that's hot!")
- eliminate danger
- relieving sources of family stress
- improving public education
- changing parent and child behaviors
What is the cerebellum?
A structure at the rear and base of the brain that aids in balance an control of body movement
What is the reticular formation?
A structure in the brain stem that maintains alertness and consciousness
What is the hippocampus?
An inner-brain structure that plays a vital role in memory and in images of space we use to help us find our way
What is the amygdala?
An inner-brain structure that plays a central role in processing emotional information
What is the corpus callosum?
The large bundle of fibers connecting the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex
What is animistic thinking?
- The belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities
What is cardinality?
The mathematical principle stating that the last number in a counting sequence indicates the quantity of items in the set
What is centration?
In Piaget's theory, the tendency of preoperational children to focus on one aspect of a situation while neglecting other important features
What is conservation?
The understanding that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes
What is dual representation?
The ability to view a symbolic object as both an object in its own right and a symbol
What is egocentrism?
Failure to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from one's own
What is emergent literacy?
Children's active efforts to construct literacy knowledge through informal experiences
What is episodic memory?
Memory for everyday experiences
What are expansions?
Adult responses that elaborate on children's speech, increasing its complexity
What is fast mapping?
Children's ability to connect new words with their underlying concepts after only a brief encounter
What is guided participation?
- Shared endeavors between more expert and less expert participants, without specifying the precise features of communication, thereby allowing for variations across situations and cultures
- A broader concept than scaffolding
What is hierarchical classification?
The organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences between the groups
What is intersubjectivity?
The process by which two participants who begin a task with different understandings arrive at a shared understanding
What is irreversibility?
- The inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point
- Distinguished from reversibility
What is metacognition?
- Thinking about thought
- Awareness of mental activities
What is mutual exclusivity bias?
Early in vocabulary growth, children's assumption that words refer to entirely separate, nonoverlapping categories
What is ordinality?
The mathematical principle specifying order relationships (> and <) between quantities
What is the overlapping-waves theory?
A theory of problem solving, which states that when given challenging problems, children try out various strategies and gradually select those that are fastest and most accurate
What is overregularization?
Extension of regular grammatical rules to words that are exceptions
What is phonological awareness?
- The ability to reflect on and manipulate the sound structure of spoken language, as indicated by sensitivity to changes in sounds within words, to rhyming and to incorrect pronunciation
- A strong predictor of emergent literacy
What are pragmatics?
The practical, social side of language, concerned with how to engage in effective and appropriate communication
What is private speech?
Self-directed speech that children use to plan and guide their own behavior
What is Project Head Start?
The most extensive federally funded preschool intervention program in the United States, which provides low-income children with a year or two of preschool education, along with nutritional and health services, and encourages parent involvement in children's learning and development
What are recasts?
Adult responses that restructure children's grammatically inaccurate speech into correct form
What is the preoperational stage?
- Piaget's second stage
- Ages 2-7
- Children undergo an extraordinary increase in representational/symbolic activity, although thought is not yet logical
What is scaffolding?
- Adjusting the support offered during a teaching session to fit the child's current level of performance
- As competence increases, the adult gradually and sensitively withdraws support, turning responsibility over to the child
What are scripts?
- General descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation
- Used to organize, interpret, and predict everyday experiences
What is semantic bootstrapping?
Using semantics, or word meanings, to figure out grammatical rules
What is sociodramatic play?
The make-believe play with others that is under way by the end of the second year and increases rapidly in complexity during early childhood
What is syntactic bootstrapping?
Figuring out word meanings by observing how words are used in syntax, or the structure of sentences
What would a Piagetian classroom promote?
- Discovery learning
- Sensitivity to children's readiness to learn
- Acceptance of individual differences
What does Vygotsky regard as the foundation for all higher cognitive processes?
What would a Vygotskian classroom emphasize?
- Assisted discovery - both teacher guidance and peer collaboration are vitally important
- Make-believe play
How does attention change during early childhood?
- Sustained attention increases sharply between ages 2 1/2 to 3
- All thanks to:
- increased activation of the prefrontal cortex
- the capacity to generate complex play goals
- adult scaffolding
- high-quality preschool education
When do children realize that both beliefs and desires can influence behavior?
Age 4 and on
What serves as the basis for more complex understandings for toddlers?
Toddler's grasp of ordinality
When do children grasp the principle of cardinality?
Age 3 1/2 to 4
When are scores considered good predictors of later IQ and academic achievement?
By age 6 to 7
According to one view, children are innately biased to induce word meanings using what?
A mutual exclusively bias and syntactic bootstrapping
When do children adopt the word order of their language?
By ages 2 and 3
According to one view, children engage in ______________, relying on word meanings to figure out grammatical rules.
What are the benefits of make-believe play?
- It's good for imagination
- It's helpful in building social skills
- It helps with attention
- It helps with memory
- It helps with language and literacy
- It helps with self control
How many preschoolers have an imaginary companion?
- a lot of only children develop imaginary siblings
When do children view others as intentional beings who are available for communication?
When are children aware of others' emotions and desires?
When do children realize that thinking is internal, but focus on desires?
How many children go to preschool?
What is associative play?
A form of true social interaction in which children engage in separate activities but interact by exchanging toys and commenting on one another's behavior
What is authoritarian child-rearing style?
A child-rearing style that is low in acceptance and involvement, high in coercive and psychological control, and low in autonomy granting
What is authoritative child-rearing style?
A child-rearing style that is high in acceptance and involvement, emphasizes adaptive control techniques, and includes gradual appropriate autonomy granting
What are child-rearing styles?
Combinations of parenting behaviors that occur over a wide range of situations, creating an enduring child-rearing climate
What is cooperative play?
A form of social interaction in which children orient toward a common goal, sch as acting out a make-believe theme
What is gender constancy?
A full understanding of the biologically based permanence of one's gender, including the realization that sex remains the same over time even if clothing, hairstyle, and play activities change
What is gender identity?
An image of oneself as relatively masculine or feminine in characteristics
What is gender schema theory?
An information-processing approach to gender typing the explains how environmental pressures and children's cognitions work together to shape gender-role development
What is gender typing?
Any association of objects, activities, roles or traits with one sex or the other in ways that conform to cultural stereotypes
What is induction?
A type of discipline in which an adult helps the child notice feeling by pointing out the effects of the child's misbehavior on others
What is initiative vs guilt?
In Erikson's theory, the psychological conflict of early childhood, which is resolved positively through play experiences that foster a healthy sense of purposefulness and through the development of a superego, or conscience, that is not overly strict or guilt-ridden
What are matters of personal choice?
Concerns that do not violate the rights or welfare of others, and therefore, are up to each individual, such as choice of friends, hairstyle, and leisure activities
What are moral imperatives?
Rules and standards that protect people's rights and welfare
What is nonsocial activity?
Unoccupied, onlooker behavior and solitary play
What is parallel play?
A form of limited social participation in which a child plays near other children with similar materials but does not interact with them
What is permissive child-rearing style?
A child-rearing style that is high in acceptance but either overindulgent or inattentive, low in control, and inappropriately lenient in autonomy granting
What is physical aggression?
A form of aggression that harms others through physical injury to themselves or their property
What is proactive aggression?
- A type of aggression in which children act to fulfill a need or desire - to obtain an object, privilege, space, or social reward, such as adult attention - and unemotionally attack a person to achieve their goal
- Also called instrumental aggression
What is prosocial/altruistic behavior?
Actions that benefit another person without any expected reward for the self
What is reactive aggression?
- An angry, defensive response to provocation or a blocked goal that is intended to hurt another person
- Also called hostile aggression
What is relational aggression?
A form of aggression that damages another's peer relationships through social exclusion, malicious gossip, or friendship manipulation
What is self-concept?
The set of attributes, abilities, attitudes, and values that an individual believes defines who he/she is
What is self-esteem?
An aspect of self-concept that involves judgements about one's own worth and the feelings associated with those judgements
What are social conventions?
Customs determined by consensus within a society, such as table manners and politeness rituals
What is social problem solving?
Generating and applying strategies that prevent or resolve disagreements, resulting in outcomes that are both acceptable to others and beneficial to the self
What is uninvolved child-rearing style?
A child-rearing style that combines low acceptance and involvement with little control and general indifference to issues of autonomy
What is verbal aggression?
A form of aggression that harms others through threats of physical aggression, name-calling, or hostile teasing
What does the psychoanalytic perspective emphasize?
The emotional side of moral development
What does the social learning theory focus on?
How moral behavior is learned through reinforcement and modeling
What does the cognitive-developmental perspective view children as?
Active thinkers about social rules
During early childhood _________ aggression declines while _________ aggression increases
What are the three forms of proactive and reactive aggression?
- Physical aggression (more common in boys)
- Verbal aggression
- Relational aggression
Why do children high in reactive aggression make many unprovoked attacks?
Because they see hostility where it does not exist
What do prenatal hormones contribute to?
- Boys' higher activity level and rowdier play
- Children's preference for same-sex playmates
What does cognitive-developmental theory suggest about gender-constancy?
- It must be mastered before children develop gender-typed behavior
- However, gender-role behavior is acquired long before gender constancy
What are maltreated children are impaired in?
- Emotional self-regulation
- Empathy and sympathy
- Social skills
- Academic motivation
- (they're likely to suffer central nervous system damage)
What is emotional self-regulation?
Our ability to control how we express our emotions
What is effortful control?
- It's a part of self-regulation
- The inhibition of impulses and shifting of attention
- (VITAL COMPONENT TO MANAGING EMOTIONS)