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What are the 7 most applicable skills to the exploration phase?
- Asking Questions
- seeking clarification
- reflecting content
- reflecting feelings
- reflecting feeling and meaning
- going beyond what is said
Exploring the issue involves examining the present status of the problem/issue. What is important to address
- Onset (Explore the origin of the problem; the circumstances under which it first occurred)
- Evolution (Explore the development and course of the problem/issue; when and how it was better or worse; and when and how the client addressed or coped with the problem/issue)
- Frequency (Explore how often episodes of the problem/issue occur)
- Situational Context (Explore when, where, and how episodes of the problem/ issue emerge)
- Intensity/Severity (explore the severity or intensity of the problem/issue)
- Duration (explore how long each episode of the problem/issue lasts)
Exploring the person...
Exploring the person involves encouraging clients to explore aspects of themselves as individual human beings and, when relevant, as members of a family, group, organization, or community. Focus on the thinking, feeling, and doing aspects of clients' experiences.
Exploring the situation...
Exploring the situation involves examining current and, when applicable, past circumstances. Collect pertinent info about social and cultural factors, as well as economic, environmental, and legal aspects of situations that may relate to the issue of concern, or to those assets or resources that might be useful for resolution. gather info about significant other people, family systems, communities, ethnic affiliations, religious involvement, housing, education, employment, and finances.
Exploring the future....
Exploring the future involves examining the issue, the person, and the situation as they may emerge in the future.
Open versus closed ended questions
- Open-ended questions are phrased in a manner that encourages people to express themselves expansively and extensively.
- Closed-ended questions are phrased to elicit short responses, sometimes simply yes or no.
What are some examples of questions that seek clarification?
- What, specifically, do you mean when you say_____
- Could you be more specific about _____
- Would you please elaborate on _____
- Please explain what you mean by ____
What is reflecting content
- Reflecting content is the emphatic skill of communicating your understanding of the factual or informational part of a message.
- exp "You're saying ___"
What is reflecting feelings?
Reflecting feelings is another of the empathic, active listening skills. It usually consists of a brief response that communicates your understanding of the feelings expressed by a client.
exp "You feel ___"
What is reflecting: going beyond?
Going beyond what is said occurs when you use your emphatic understanding of the client to extend slightly what was expressed. Instead of mirroring exactly what clients have said, you use your knowledge, experience, logic, and intuition to add modestly to the feelings or meanings actually communicated. Through a process called additive empathy, you take a small leap beyond the expressed message to bring into greater awareness or clarity information that a client already knows. Your responses "go beyond what the client has explicitly expressed to feelings and meanings only implied in the clients' statements and somewhat below the surface of client's awareness.
What is the PIE assessment
Person-in-environment (PIE) is an assessment of classification and codes.
- Factor I: Social Functioning Problems: type, severity, duration, coping ability, and strengths
- Factor II: Environmental Problems: severity, duration and resources or strengths
- Factor III: Mental Health Problems and Strengths
- Factor IV: Physical Health Problems and Strengths.
What are different types of Assessments?
- Person-In Environment (PIE)- classification/code assessment
- Psychosocial and Environmental Problems
- Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)-how your rated on a hypothetical continuum of mental health-illnesses
- Transtheoretical Model (TTM)/Stages of Change- Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, Maintenance
What is the DAC structure of assessment?
- Description, Assessment, and Contract (DAC)
- First you organize the information gained through the exploration process into a description. Second you formulate ideas and hypotheses concerning plausible causes and solutions that you and the client generate into tentative assessment. Third you summarize the agreement about the goals and plans that you and the client negotiate into a service contract.
What is SMART format
- Action oriented
What is Egan's list of what makes goals effective
- 1. Show up as accomplishments, not as progress
- 2. clear and specific
- 3. Easily understood, measurable, verifiable
- 4. Realistic and Reasonable
- 6. Congruent with clients values and culture
- 7. Include time frame
How do you develop an action plan
- Action plans address the questions of who, what, where, when and especially how you and the client will pursue the agreed-upon goals.
- In developing an action plan you and the client discuss a number of factors including stages of change and develop an approach to guide your work together.
Identify what "Action Steps" are
- Action steps contribute to the achievement of larger goals using relatively small steps.
- Identifying action steps involve determining what will be done, when, and by whom.
- Various action steps may be referred to as client tasks, worker tasks, in-session tasks, or maintenance tasks.
What is evaluating
You and the client identify progress through changes in indicators. ie. goal attainment scales, frequency counts, individualized or subjective rating scales, rapid assessment instruments, or other paper-and-pencil and online instruments.
Whatare the skills used with Working and Evaluating
- Rehearsing action steps
- Reviewing action steps
- Responding with Immediacy
- Pointing out Endings
- Reporting Progress
What are rehearsing Action Steps
- Rehearsing and action step decreases anxiety associated with the idea of taking action, enhances motivation, and increases the probability that the task will be undertaken.
- ie role play, visualizing the action step
What are the key points of "Reviewing Action Steps"
- by reviewing you gather information that contributes to the evaluation of progress toward goal achievement and the identification of subsequent action steps.
- Explore with the clients their thinking and feeling experiences that led them to where they are.
What is "reframing"
Reframing refers to the words you say and the actions you take in introducing clients to a new way of looking at some aspect of themselves, the issue, or the situation.
What is "Confronting"
- Pointing out to clients directly and without disapproval discrepancies, inconsistencies', or contradictions in their words, feelings and actions.
- Challenge clients to examine themselves for congruence
What is reviewing the process
- Reviewing the process involves a summary retrospective of what had occurred between you and your clients during the time you have worked together.
- Cooperative process
Explain "final evaluation"
- Evaluation of progress toward issue resolution and goal attainment.
- Can use measurement instruments ie. Questioners, rating scales and graphs
- Seek feedback from clients.
- Express pleasure and credit concerning positive changes.
- Help clients identify issues and goals that haven't been completely achieved or resolved.
- Final evaluating is a cooperative process.
- Be sure to review the results of subjective and objective evaluation instruments and provide a summary graphic.
- As part of the final evaluation, you may seek feedback from clients about things you did or said that were helpful and things that were not. This kind of evaluation may help clients identify behaviors they can adopt for their future use.
Explain "sharing ending feelings"
- Ending can be a significant event in the life of the client.
- If clients conclude the relationship without sharing some feelings, they may experience a sense of incompleteness. This "unfinished"quality may impede the appropriate process of psychological separation from you and inhibit the client's movement toward increased autonomy and independence. ENCOURAGE clients to express their ending feelings.
- During the ending process, the SW may experience strong feelings as well. It is often useful to share some of these feelings as long as they are relevant and appropriate.
Explain "recording the closing summary"
- Following your final meeting with a client, you condense what occurred into a written closing summary.
- Include the following info in the final record
- 1.date of final contact
- 2. Your name and title as well as name of client
- 3. Beginning date of service
- 4. Reason of initiated contact
- 5. Agreed upon goals
- 6. Approaches taken, nature of services, activities undertook
- 7. Summary evaluation Of progress and identify unresolved or unaccomplished issues and goals
- 8. Current person-issue-situation assessment
- 9. Reasons for closing the case.
What are the four most common forms of concluding a relationship with a client
- 1. Reviewing the process
- 2. Final Evaluating
- 3. Sharing ending feelings and saying goodbye
- 4. Recording the closing summary
In skills for planning, describe developing contracts with clients
- The contract will include the following
- 1.goals or problems and concerns to be addressed in counseling
- 2. The treatment methods that will be used to accomplish the goals or address the problems and concerns
- 3. Number of counseling sessions required for goal accomplishment or problems and concerns resolution
- 4. Cost of counseling services
In skills for planning what are the six "components of a contract"
- Client objectives ranked in priority order from most to least important
- Action steps or tasks to be completed by the client
- Action steps or tasks to be completed by the Social worker
- Schedule or time frame for completion of above tasks
- Techniques and methods to be used in counseling
- Logistical details such as time and place of sessions, costs, and so forth
Skills for planning, describe "common goals used in counseling"
Explain ego psychology
- Help strengthen a client's ego or to make changes in the client's personality.
- Ego supportive- aim at restoring, maintaining, or enhancing the individuals adaptive functioning as well as strengthening or building ego where there are deficits or impairments
- Ego-modifying intervention aims at changing basic personality patterns or structures
Explain cognitive therapy
- Cognitive therapy is an active, directive, time limited structured approach used to treat a variety of psychiatric disorders.
- A-B-C model- automatic thoughts, belief, consequence
Explain behavioral therapy
Learn coping skills or eliminate self-defeating habits
Explain social learning theory
- Bandura- assist in development of coping behaviors
- 5 basic functioning models
- 4-reducing anxiety
Explain person-centered therapy
- The basic theory of person centered therapy is that if the Social worker is successful in conveying genuineness, unconditional positive regard and empathy, then the client wI'll respond with constructive changes in personality organization.
- Employ core qualities to help client achieve self-actualization.
Explain solution-focused therapy
- Problem solving models that seek to identify a cause for the problem.
- Find useful ways to build solutions