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  1. What is the split of the phylum Lycopodiophyta?
    lycophyte clade

    euphyllophyte clade
  2. The three orders of the living lycophytes consist entirely of __; each order includes a single family. 

    All possess __, and this type of leaf, which shows relatively little diversity in form,, is highly characteristic of the phylum; all lycophytes are eusporangiate.
    • nonwoody herbaceous plants
    • microphylls
  3. Most lines of __ became extinct before the end of the Paleozoic era
    woody lycophytes
  4. Club Mosses are of the genus__. 


    location: arctic to tropics (tropics as epiphytes)
  5. Sporophytes of Club Mosses:

    COnsist of a __ from whihc __ and __ arise. Both stems and roots are __. 

    The __ are usually spirally arranged, but they appear opposite or whorled in some members.
    branching rhizome

    aerial branches and roots


  6. Where do sporangia occur?

    Sometimes, nonphotosynthetic sporoylls are grouped into __ at the ends of the aerial branches.
    on the upper surface of fertile microphylls called sporophylls, which are mdified leaves or leaflike organs that bear the spore-producing sporangia

  7. Germination--> spores give rise to __--> development and maturation of __ and __.
    bisexual gametophytes

    anth and arch
  8. What is interesting about the anth and arch characteristics?
    it may require from 6 to 15 years, adn the gaetophytes may produce a series of sporophytes in successive archegonia as they continue to grow

    self-fert rates are very low and the gametophytes of these species predominantly cross- fertilize
  9. __ is required for fertilization in Lycopodiacea for what?

    to allow sperm to swim through water ot the archegonium
  10. After fertilizaton, what happens?
    zygote--> embryo grows within venter of archegonium
  11. Explain the relationship between the sporophyte and the gametophyte.
    the sporophyte may remain attached to the gametophyte for a long time, but eventually it becomes independent
  12. Spike Mosses are of the genera __. 



    • moist places
    • some in deserts become dormant during the driest part of the year
  13. The herbaceous sporophyte of Selaginella is basically similar to that of Lycopodia in that __?

    How are they different?
    it bears microophylls and its sporophylls are arranged in strobili

    it has a small, scalelike outgrowth, called a ligule, near the base of the upper surface of each microphyll adn sporophyll
  14. Selaginella is __, with __--male and female--gametophytes. Each sporophyll bears a single sporangium on its upper surface. Explain the spores.
    • heterosporous
    • unisexual

    megasporangia are borne by megasporophylls

    microsporangia are borne by microsporophylls
  15. The male gametophytes in Selaginella develop within the __, and they lack __. At maturity, the male gametophytes consist of a __ and an __ which give rise to many __. The __ wall must do what for the sperm to be liberated?
    • microspore
    • chlorophyll
    • single prothallial, or vegetative, cell
    • antheridium
    • microspore
    • rupture
  16. During development of hte female gametophyte,, what happens?

    This is the portion of the female gametophyte in which the __ develop. It has been reported that __.
    • the megaspore wall ruptures and the gametophyte protrudes through the rupture to the outside 
    • archegonia

    the female gametophytes sometimes devleop chlorophlast, although most Selaginella gametophytes derive their nutrition from food stored within the megaspores
  17. What is water required for?

    Explain what happens after?
    the sperm to swim to the archegonia and fertilize the eggs 

    fertilization occurs after the gametophytes have been shed from the strobilus development of the embryos in both Lycopodia and Selaginella a structure called a suspensor is formed.
  18. What does the suspensor do?
    serves to thrust the developing embryo deep within the nutrient-rich tissue of the female gametophyte
  19. Gradually, hte _ emerges from the gametophyte and becomes independent.
    developing sporophyte
  20. The quillworts are __. 


    aquatic, or they may grow in pools that become dry at certain seasons
  21. Sporophyte of Isoetes
    short, fleshy, underground stem being quill-like microphylls on its upper surface and roots on its lower surface
  22. In Isoetes, each leaf is a __.
    potential sporophyll
  23. The life cycle of Isoetes is __. Explain

    megasporangia are borne at the base of the megasporophylls, and the microsporophylls, similar to the megasporophylls, but located nearer the center of the plant
  24. One of the distnictive features of Isoetes is __.
    the presence of a specialized cambium that adds secondary tissues to the corm
  25. Externally, the camium produces only __, whereas internally it produces a peculiar __ consisting of sieve elements , parenchyma cells, and tracheids in varying proportions.
    • parenchyma tissue
    • vascular tissue
  26. Some Isoetes can do what in terms of carbon
    obtain their carbon for photosynthesis from the sediment in which they grow
Card Set:
2014-04-12 16:18:14
Plant Kingdom
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