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What is the split of the phylum Lycopodiophyta?
The three orders of the living lycophytes consist entirely of __; each order includes a single family.
All possess __, and this type of leaf, which shows relatively little diversity in form,, is highly characteristic of the phylum; all lycophytes are eusporangiate.
- nonwoody herbaceous plants
Most lines of __ became extinct before the end of the Paleozoic era
Club Mosses are of the genus__.
location: arctic to tropics (tropics as epiphytes)
Sporophytes of Club Mosses:
COnsist of a __ from whihc __ and __ arise. Both stems and roots are __.
The __ are usually spirally arranged, but they appear opposite or whorled in some members.
aerial branches and roots
Where do sporangia occur?
Sometimes, nonphotosynthetic sporoylls are grouped into __ at the ends of the aerial branches.
on the upper surface of fertile microphylls called sporophylls, which are mdified leaves or leaflike organs that bear the spore-producing sporangia
Germination--> spores give rise to __--> development and maturation of __ and __.
anth and arch
What is interesting about the anth and arch characteristics?
it may require from 6 to 15 years, adn the gaetophytes may produce a series of sporophytes in successive archegonia as they continue to grow
self-fert rates are very low and the gametophytes of these species predominantly cross- fertilize
__ is required for fertilization in Lycopodiacea for what?
to allow sperm to swim through water ot the archegonium
After fertilizaton, what happens?
zygote--> embryo grows within venter of archegonium
Explain the relationship between the sporophyte and the gametophyte.
the sporophyte may remain attached to the gametophyte for a long time, but eventually it becomes independent
Spike Mosses are of the genera __.
- moist places
- some in deserts become dormant during the driest part of the year
The herbaceous sporophyte of Selaginella is basically similar to that of Lycopodia in that __?
How are they different?
it bears microophylls and its sporophylls are arranged in strobili
it has a small, scalelike outgrowth, called a ligule, near the base of the upper surface of each microphyll adn sporophyll
Selaginella is __, with __--male and female--gametophytes. Each sporophyll bears a single sporangium on its upper surface. Explain the spores.
megasporangia are borne by megasporophylls
microsporangia are borne by microsporophylls
The male gametophytes in Selaginella develop within the __, and they lack __. At maturity, the male gametophytes consist of a __ and an __ which give rise to many __. The __ wall must do what for the sperm to be liberated?
- single prothallial, or vegetative, cell
During development of hte female gametophyte,, what happens?
This is the portion of the female gametophyte in which the __ develop. It has been reported that __.
- the megaspore wall ruptures and the gametophyte protrudes through the rupture to the outside
the female gametophytes sometimes devleop chlorophlast, although most Selaginella gametophytes derive their nutrition from food stored within the megaspores
What is water required for?
Explain what happens after?
the sperm to swim to the archegonia and fertilize the eggs
fertilization occurs after the gametophytes have been shed from the strobilus development of the embryos in both Lycopodia and Selaginella a structure called a suspensor is formed.
What does the suspensor do?
serves to thrust the developing embryo deep within the nutrient-rich tissue of the female gametophyte
Gradually, hte _ emerges from the gametophyte and becomes independent.
The quillworts are __.
aquatic, or they may grow in pools that become dry at certain seasons
Sporophyte of Isoetes
short, fleshy, underground stem being quill-like microphylls on its upper surface and roots on its lower surface
In Isoetes, each leaf is a __.
The life cycle of Isoetes is __. Explain
megasporangia are borne at the base of the megasporophylls, and the microsporophylls, similar to the megasporophylls, but located nearer the center of the plant
One of the distnictive features of Isoetes is __.
the presence of a specialized cambium that adds secondary tissues to the corm
Externally, the camium produces only __, whereas internally it produces a peculiar __ consisting of sieve elements , parenchyma cells, and tracheids in varying proportions.
- parenchyma tissue
- vascular tissue
Some Isoetes can do what in terms of carbon
obtain their carbon for photosynthesis from the sediment in which they grow