NTD303 chapter 8

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  1. excess energy is stored as?
  2. what is fat used for?
    energy between meals
  3. energy balance?
    energy in = energy out
  4. 1 pound of fat =?
    3500 calories
  5. food composition influences?
    • hungor
    • satiation
    • satiety
  6. physiological response to nerve signals and chemical messengers
  7. feeling of fullness and satisfaction during a meal
  8. feeling of fullness after a meal; cue to not start eating again
  9. if you cut 500kcals/day over 7 days, how much weight will you lose?
  10. body is made up of ?
    60% water
  11. energy in, food composition is influenced by?
    • overriding hunger and satiety
    • external cues
    • environmental influences
    • disordered eating
  12. environmental influences on food intake?
    • large portion sizes
    • favorite food
    • abundance of food
  13. which source of food is most satiating/
  14. nutrient composition?
    • protein
    • low energy density foods
    • high fiber foods
    • high fat foods
  15. which nutrient source has a strong satiety signals?
    high fat foods
  16. components of energy expenditure?
    • basal metabolism
    • physical activity
    • food composition (thermal effect)
  17. highest in people who are growing and is highest in people with a lot of lean body mass
  18. two thirds of energy expended in a day comes from?
    basal metabolism
  19. what are metabolic activities?
    • all basic properties of life
    • BMR
    • RMR
  20. one way to increase BMR/
    engage in strength training and endurance activites regularly
  21. ___ is high in people with a fever, under stress, and highly active thyroid glands
  22. bmr slows down with?
    fasting and malnutrition
  23. energy expenditure through physical activity comes from?
    • movement of skeletal muscles
    • frequency, intensity, duration
  24. an estimate of the energy required to process food
    thermic effect of food
  25. energy expenditure aka
    burn calories
  26. when do you burn more calories?
    • extreme cold
    • physical conditioning
    • overfeeding
    • starvation
    • trauma
    • stress
  27. adaptive thermogenesis?
    • extra work done by the body
    • amount expended is extremely variable
  28. why do men have a higher BMI then women?
    they have more lean body mass
  29. who is BMR higher in?
    people who are growing, children, adolescents, pregnant women
  30. bmr declines with?
  31. energy requirements are based on?
    • gender
    • growth
    • age
    • physical activity
    • body composition and body size
  32. bmr is highest in?
    tall people and people with a large body surface area
  33. energy expenditure decreases by about ___ per decade
  34. healthy body weight should not be based on?
    • appearance
    • fashion
  35. how to calculate BMI?
    weight (lbs)/ height (in2) X703
  36. BMI of healthy weigt?
  37. bmi of under weight?
  38. over weight BMI?
  39. bmi of obese?
  40. ideal amount of body fat depends on?
    the person
  41. who needs less body fat?
    some athletes
  42. who needs more body fat?
    Alaskan fishermen, pregnant women
  43. visceral fat?
    • central obesity
    • -apple shape
  44. subcutaneous fat
    pear shape
  45. body fat % for male athletes?
  46. body fat % for female athletes?
  47. is it healthier to carry fat subcutaneous or visceral?
  48. carry fat in abdominal cavity and crowds organs which is bad
  49. men should have what shape?
  50. woman should have what shape?
  51. womens weight circumference should be what to be considered health?
    less than 35 inches
  52. mens waist circumference should be less than what to be considered healthy?
  53. indicator of fat distribution and centrol obesity
    waist circumference
  54. techniques to figure out body composition?
    • skin fold measures
    • hydrodesitometry
    • bioelectrical impedence
  55. hydrodesitrometry
    underweight weighing
  56. body weight and fat distribution correlate with?
    disease risk and life expectancy
  57. correlations are not
  58. risk associated with being underweight?
    • fighting against wasting disease
    • menstrual irregularities and infertility
    • osteoporosis and bone fractures
  59. ___ __ risk increases the lower you are on the BMI scale and the higher you are on the BMI scale
    chronic disease
  60. risks associated with being overweight?
    • obesity
    • more likely to be disabled in later years
    • costs
    • yo-yo dieting
  61. 4 health risks with body weight and body faat
    • cardiovascular disease
    • diabetes type 2
    • cancer
    • inflammation and metabolic syndrome
  62. elevate blood cholesterol  and hypertension, due to central obesity
    cardiovascular disease
  63. from central obesity and weight gains and body weight
    diabetes type II
  64. the relationship of this and health risks is not fully understood
  65. 5 factors of metabolic syndrome`
    • insulin resistance
    • low HDL
    • high tryglycerides
    • central adiposity
    • high blood pressure
  66. if you have 3 out of the 5 for metabolic syndrome that =
    a diagnosis
  67. 3 signs of metabolic syndrome?
    • change in bodys metabolsim
    • fat accumulation
    • elevated blood lipids
  68. 4 types of eating disorders
    • the female athlete triad
    • anorexia nervosa
    • bulimia nervosa
    • binge eating disorder
  69. triangle of female athlete triad/
    • disordered eating
    • osteoperosis
    • amenorrhea
  70. what is amenorrhea
    failure to menstruate
  71. what is the female athlete triad caused by?
    • match weight to assigned weight by coach
    • keep weight down by eating little and training ahrd
  72. cause of anorexia?
    • view normal body weight as too fat and insists of losing weight
    • physically exhausted
    • laxative abuse
    • need for self control dominates need for food
    • develops amenorrhea, chronically depressed
  73. health effects of anorexia?
    • body becomes depeleted of body fat and protein
    • heart pumps ineffeciently
    • mineral imbalances
    • death can occur due to organ failure
  74. treatment of anorexia
    • multidisciplinary approach
    • many doctors work together
    • increase kcals slowly
  75. dietary objective in treating anorexia
    stop weight loss while establishing regular eating patterns
  76. signs of bulimia?
    • thinks a great deal about body image and food
    • negative self perceptions
    • purging after binging
  77. consequences of bulimia?
    • fluid/mineral imbalances
    • abnormal heart rhythms
    • injury to kidneys
    • irritation of esophogus
    • erosion of teeth
    • rupture of teeth of the esophagus
  78. treatment of bulimia?
    • establish regular eating patterns
    • establish an exercise program
    • weight maintenance is the goal
    • learning to eat 3 meals/snacks per day
    • satisfy hunger and maintain weight
  79. signs of binge eating disorder?
    • overweight of obese
    • binge on foods/compulsively overeat
    • do not purge
  80. binge eating treatment?
    • behavioral disorder than can be resolved
    • simple internet based treatment program can help
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NTD303 chapter 8
2014-04-12 17:49:22
powerpoint ntd 303 chapter test

ntd 303 chapter 8
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