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excess energy is stored as?
what is fat used for?
energy between meals
energy in = energy out
1 pound of fat =?
food composition influences?
physiological response to nerve signals and chemical messengers
feeling of fullness and satisfaction during a meal
feeling of fullness after a meal; cue to not start eating again
if you cut 500kcals/day over 7 days, how much weight will you lose?
body is made up of ?
energy in, food composition is influenced by?
- overriding hunger and satiety
- external cues
- environmental influences
- disordered eating
environmental influences on food intake?
- large portion sizes
- favorite food
- abundance of food
which source of food is most satiating/
- low energy density foods
- high fiber foods
- high fat foods
which nutrient source has a strong satiety signals?
high fat foods
components of energy expenditure?
- basal metabolism
- physical activity
- food composition (thermal effect)
highest in people who are growing and is highest in people with a lot of lean body mass
two thirds of energy expended in a day comes from?
what are metabolic activities?
- all basic properties of life
one way to increase BMR/
engage in strength training and endurance activites regularly
___ is high in people with a fever, under stress, and highly active thyroid glands
bmr slows down with?
fasting and malnutrition
energy expenditure through physical activity comes from?
- movement of skeletal muscles
- frequency, intensity, duration
an estimate of the energy required to process food
thermic effect of food
energy expenditure aka
when do you burn more calories?
- extreme cold
- physical conditioning
- extra work done by the body
- amount expended is extremely variable
why do men have a higher BMI then women?
they have more lean body mass
who is BMR higher in?
people who are growing, children, adolescents, pregnant women
energy requirements are based on?
- physical activity
- body composition and body size
bmr is highest in?
tall people and people with a large body surface area
energy expenditure decreases by about ___ per decade
healthy body weight should not be based on?
how to calculate BMI?
weight (lbs)/ height (in2) X703
BMI of healthy weigt?
bmi of under weight?
ideal amount of body fat depends on?
who needs less body fat?
who needs more body fat?
Alaskan fishermen, pregnant women
- central obesity
- -apple shape
body fat % for male athletes?
body fat % for female athletes?
is it healthier to carry fat subcutaneous or visceral?
carry fat in abdominal cavity and crowds organs which is bad
men should have what shape?
woman should have what shape?
womens weight circumference should be what to be considered health?
less than 35 inches
mens waist circumference should be less than what to be considered healthy?
indicator of fat distribution and centrol obesity
techniques to figure out body composition?
- skin fold measures
- bioelectrical impedence
body weight and fat distribution correlate with?
disease risk and life expectancy
correlations are not
risk associated with being underweight?
- fighting against wasting disease
- menstrual irregularities and infertility
- osteoporosis and bone fractures
___ __ risk increases the lower you are on the BMI scale and the higher you are on the BMI scale
risks associated with being overweight?
- more likely to be disabled in later years
- yo-yo dieting
4 health risks with body weight and body faat
- cardiovascular disease
- diabetes type 2
- inflammation and metabolic syndrome
elevate blood cholesterol and hypertension, due to central obesity
from central obesity and weight gains and body weight
diabetes type II
the relationship of this and health risks is not fully understood
5 factors of metabolic syndrome`
- insulin resistance
- low HDL
- high tryglycerides
- central adiposity
- high blood pressure
if you have 3 out of the 5 for metabolic syndrome that =
3 signs of metabolic syndrome?
- change in bodys metabolsim
- fat accumulation
- elevated blood lipids
4 types of eating disorders
- the female athlete triad
- anorexia nervosa
- bulimia nervosa
- binge eating disorder
triangle of female athlete triad/
- disordered eating
what is amenorrhea
failure to menstruate
what is the female athlete triad caused by?
- match weight to assigned weight by coach
- keep weight down by eating little and training ahrd
cause of anorexia?
- view normal body weight as too fat and insists of losing weight
- physically exhausted
- laxative abuse
- need for self control dominates need for food
- develops amenorrhea, chronically depressed
health effects of anorexia?
- body becomes depeleted of body fat and protein
- heart pumps ineffeciently
- mineral imbalances
- death can occur due to organ failure
treatment of anorexia
- multidisciplinary approach
- many doctors work together
- increase kcals slowly
dietary objective in treating anorexia
stop weight loss while establishing regular eating patterns
signs of bulimia?
- thinks a great deal about body image and food
- negative self perceptions
- purging after binging
consequences of bulimia?
- fluid/mineral imbalances
- abnormal heart rhythms
- injury to kidneys
- irritation of esophogus
- erosion of teeth
- rupture of teeth of the esophagus
treatment of bulimia?
- establish regular eating patterns
- establish an exercise program
- weight maintenance is the goal
- learning to eat 3 meals/snacks per day
- satisfy hunger and maintain weight
signs of binge eating disorder?
- overweight of obese
- binge on foods/compulsively overeat
- do not purge
binge eating treatment?
- behavioral disorder than can be resolved
- simple internet based treatment program can help