Chapter 9 NTD303
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what percent of adults are either overweight of obese, this represents how much of the population?
___ % of US children are overweigh or obese, which represents about ___ of the population
overweight and obesity ?
- major health problem in the US
- prevalence continues to increase
- BMI or 25 or greater
- epidemic is worldwide
energy in > energy out?
energy out > energy out
the number of fat cells will continue to ___ if energy in is greater than energy out
when fat cells accumulate ___, thi causes them to ___, which signals the body to ?
- make more fat cells
when you lose weight, what happens to the number of fat cells?
they get smaller, but do no disappear
people with extra fat cells tend to ___ lost weight rapidly because their many fat cells can readily fill
people with an average number of fat cells may be ___ ___ in maintaining weight loss when their cells shrink because both the fat cell number and the fat cell size are?
the amount of fat in ___ ___ reflects both the number and size of fat cells
the greatest increase of number of fat cells occurs during?
late childhood and early puberty
take away messages of fat cells?
- not to become overweight or obese in the first place
- the prevention of obesity is most crucial during the growing years of childhood and adolescence when fat cells increase in number
job is to remove triglycerides from the blood for storage in adipose tissue and muscle cells
greater LPL levels are found in
- obese people
- people who lost weight
metabolism is the ?
___ ___ increases after weight gain and decreases after weight loss, which can explain why it is so difficult for underweight person to gain weight and an overweight person to lose weight
determinant in the development of obesity and makes storing fat very efficient
lipoprotein lipase enzyme
Obese people have more ___ than lean peopl
the body has a certain weight that is it comfortable with and will try to maintain its weight by means of its own internal controls
even modest excesses in energy intake have a more dramatic effect on obese people than normal weight people
LPL activity is increased which means it is easier to regain weight that was lost
people who have lost weight
do not cause obesity, except for genetic disorders
genetic disorder characterized by excessive appetite, massive obesity, short stature, and mental retardation
prodder willi syndrome
how your genes interact with the environment can deterimine
role of genetics in obesity?
genetic influences do seem to be involved
genetics may determine predisposition to obesity because?
- genes interact with diet and physical activity
- satiety and energy balance
the influence of environmental factors on gene expression
when body fat increase, leptin ____ . when body fat decreases, leptin ___
stimulates appetite and is high when there is weight loss
ghrelin is secreted from the?
leptin is secreted from ?
all of the circumstances that we encounter on a daily basis that push us toward fatness
causes of overweight and obesity?
- physical inactivity
DRI for prevention of weight gain?
60 minutes of moderate activity everyday
disease risk profile includes?
family history, life threatening diseases, common risk factors for chronic diseases
the higher the BMI, the greater the waist circumference and the more risk factors then the greater urgency of ?
three indicators of obesity?
- waist circumference
- disease risk profile
overweight in good health?
- maintain don't gain
- sometimes health is not the motivation for weight loss
obese or overweight with risk factors
- weight loss recommended
- two or more risk factors
obese or overweight with life threatening condition
weight loss recommended
problems of overweight and obesity?
- social consequences
- most do not maintain weight loss
- psyhogical problems
dangerous obesity interventions?
- diet books and weight loss programs
- fad diets
- weight loss products
- herbal products
strategies for weight reduction depend on?
- degree of obesity
- risk of disease
2 drugs approved by FDA for obesity?
blocks digestion and absorption of dietary fat by inhibiting pancreatic lipase activity
suppress appetite by enhancing the release of norepinephrine
surgery for obesity?
- reduces food capacity of stomach
- reduce production of ghrelin
- long term safety and effectiveness
removes some fat, not for the morbidly obese and is just a quick fix
aggressive treatments of obesity surgery?
- gastric banding
- gastric bonding
successful weight loss strategies?
- small changes
- moderate losses
- reasonable goals
- benefits of modest weight loss
- incorporation of healthy eating and physical activity
safe goal of weight loss?
1-2 pounds loss/week or 10% of body weight in 6 months
breakfast frequency is inversely related to
eating plans for weight loss strategies?
- nutritional adequacy
- eat small portions
- lower energy density
weight loss strategy eating plans?
- remember water
- focus on fiber
- choose fats sensibly
- select carbs carefully
- watch for empty kcals
physical activity weight loss strategies?
- best approach to weight management
- combo of diet and physical activity
- reduction of abdominal fat
- kcal expenditure
how much room there is for bad foods in a day
discretionary kcalorie allowance
speeds up with activity
with physical activity, fat decreases and lean body mass increases
physical activity affects appetite how?
- delayed appetite
- inappropriate appetite
burning fat all over body not just the part you workout
environmental influences of weight loss
- presence of food
- multiple choices
- package and portion sizes
- serving containers
weight loss strategies behavior?
- keep records
- set small specific goals
- cognitive skills
- personal attitude
- support groups
components of successful weight loss
- vigourous exercise regimens
- careful eating patterns
- frequent self monitoring
takes more the prevent weight regain than to prevent weight gain
changes in metabolism
how to treat an underweight person
- help them gain weight
- physical conditioning with high energy intakes
- high kcal diet
- eat snacks in between meals
- learn to eat larger portions
- eat atleast 3 meals a day
if underweight due to illness?
incorporate liquid dietary supplements which are easy for a weak person to swallow
eating and extra 500-1000kcals a day above normal energy needs is enough to support?
exercise and build muscle
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