Geography Case Study Quiz

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Geography Case Study Quiz
2014-05-15 06:12:22

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  1. Bangladesh 2004:
    Bangladesh is what percentage floodplains?
  2. Bangladesh 2004:
    70% of all land in Bangladesh is what?
    Under 1 metre above sea level
  3. Bangladesh 2004:
    What does the Preparedness Programme entail?
    • Raised Homesteads 2m above sea level on earth banks
    • Flood Shelters - 2 hectares of raised land. Enough room for 100 families
    • Rescue Boats in areas on high risk
    • Cluster Villages 2m above sea level. 25-30 families
  4. Bangladesh 2004:
    What does the Dhaka Integrated Flood Protection Project entail?
    • Embankments to hold back water
    • Drains linked back to river
    • Slope protection to reduce erosion of embankments
  5. Bangladesh 2004:
    What has increased the amount of surface run-off in Bangladesh?
    Deforestation in the Himalayas/Bhutan
  6. Banglasdesh, 2004:
    What were the effects of the flood?
    • 36 million people affected in some way
    • Death toll of 800
    • 2.2 billion damages
    • 2 million acres of farmland submerged
  7. Bangladesh 2004:
    What started the flooding?
    A dam at Tsatitsu burst due to excessive water from rainfall and it's poor architecture
  8. Bangladesh 2004:
    What is being built in response to the flooding in order to make Bangladesh safer against flooding?
    • 350km of embankment
    • 7 large dams to store excess water
    • 5,000 flood shelters
  9. Boscastle, 16th August 2004:
    Where is Boscastle?
    Along the coast from Bude and Wadebridge at the confluence of the Valency and Jordan rivers
  10. Boscastle, 16th August 2004:
    How much rain fell over the course of the flash flood?
    500mm of rainfall in 4 hours
  11. Boscastle, 16th August 2004:
    What were the physical causes of the flood?
    • Impermeable upland area
    • Valleys funnel water towards Boscastle
    • Lagtime is quite short in that drainage basin
  12. Boscastle, 16th August 2004:
    What are the human factors in the cause of the flood?
    • Canalisation of rivers - faster water
    • Removing vegetation - less interception
    • Storm drains elsewhere go to the river - more discharge
  13. Boscastle, 16th August 2004:
    Effects of the flood?
    • 50 buildings and 25 businesses destroyed
    • 4 bridges swept away
    • Insurance companies paid out £20 million to repair damage
    • 1,000's of tons of debris left throughout the village
  14. Boscastle, 16th August 2004:
    What modifications did Boscastle put in place in 2008 with the scheme that costed £4.6 million?
    • Removed low bridges
    • Widened river
    • Added flood defence walls
    • Increased the number of storm drains in the area
  15. Lulworth Cove:
    What type of a coast line is it? Why is it called this?
    Concordant coastline - the geology is parallel to the sea.
  16. Lulworth Cove:
    What is the name of the nearby arch?
    Stair Hole
  17. Lulworth Cove:
    What is the order of the rock, going from closest to the sea to the furthest away.
    • Limestone - very hard rock
    • Sands and clays - soft rock
    • Chalk - hard rock
  18. Lulworth Cove:
    Which direction is the prevailing wind? What effect does it have on the area?
    From south west direction. The general trend of the land slopes according to the prevailing wind as waves gain more power in that direction.
  19. Lulworth Cove:
    Why is it so large? Why has it formed in this shape?
    • The soft rock is very easy to erode once the harder layer in front of it has been bypassed.
    • Since the waves pass through a small gap before entering the cove, diffraction occurs making the waves arc outwards creating that round shape.
  20. Lulworth Cove:
    Where is the cove in relation to England?
    The south coast of Dorset
  21. Dawlish Warren:
    Which defences were implemented in 1960? Why?
    • Rock armour, concrete revetments, gabions and groynes
    • These were to make sure the spit didn't wash away in the next storm and endanger the estuary behind it.
  22. Dawlish Warren:
    Why was the spit in need of protection prior to 1960?
    • From 1787-1900 the spit had lost 200m of land due to erosion.
    • Fewer sources of sand - the nearby cliffs had been fitted with defences to stop its erosion meaning less sand produced.
    • The dunes had got smaller due to holiday-makers destroying the marram grass holding the dunes together.
  23. Dawlish Warren:
    The storm of 1989-90 did £60 million damage over the whole of England. How much damage did it do to Dawlish Warren?
    The rock armour was washed away during the storm meaning the promenade behind that was undermined making it susceptible to collapsing.
  24. Dawlish Warren:
    Why should the government defend Dawlish Warren?
    • It is an internationally valuable habitat for birds and plants.
    • Tourism industry would be damaged. There are usually 20,000 people on the spit at peak times.
    • 40 local businesses are located on and around the spit providing jobs for locals.
    • The spit acts as a natural barrier for the estuary behind it.
  25. Dawlish Warren:
    in 1991, Posford Duvivier recommended new defences to be built. What were these defences and how much did they cost?
    It was a new rock armour revetment topped with a concrete sea wall. The new promenade was built behind this afterwards. It cost a total of £1,500,000.
  26. Dawlish Warren:
    According to the government, is the 1992 coastal defence on the Dawlish Warren worth it?
    Yes, since a study of potential costs and benefits must be carried out before building. They found it would protect the railway while also encouraging tourism and leisure activities.
  27. Thailand population control:
    What was the natural increase in 1970, 1990 and finally 2006?
    • 1970 - 27 per 1,000
    • 1990 - 12 per 1,000
    • 2006 - 6 per 1,000
  28. Thailand population control:
    Why did the natural increase drop so much?
    • Thailand was entering stage 3 of the Demographic Transition model so it was going to decrease anyway.
    • More wide-spread use of contraception. 4/5 of the population used contraception in 2006. Give-aways of condoms.
    • A policy was put in place which meant any people taking part in sex tourism had to wear a condom.
    • Cabbages and Condoms
    • Sex education and family planning to make sure people know the costs of family etc.
  29. Thailand population control:
    What is 'Cabbages and Condoms'?
    A national scheme which involves setting up restaurants which give out free condoms after a meal.
  30. Thailand population control:
    What was the most common form of contraception in 2000?
    The contraceptive pill which was used 26.8% of the time.
  31. Thailand population control:
    Where is Thailand?
    Eastern Asia, south of China and to the north of Indonesia. Borders Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia and Malaysia.
  32. International Migration from Mexico -> USA:
    What are the main push factors of this migration?
    • 55% literacy rate in adults
    • Poor medical facilities (1,800 per doctor)
    • Low-paid jobs (GNP of $3,750)
    • 40% unemployed
  33. International Migration from Mexico -> USA:
    What are the main pull factors of this migration?
    • 99% literacy rate in adults
    • Good medical facilities (400 per doctor)
    • Highly paid jobs (GNP of $24,750)
  34. International Migration from Mexico -> USA:
    How many foreign born Mexicans were there in the USA in 2008?
    11.4 million meaning nearly a tenth of the Mexican population was living in USA borders.
  35. International Migration from Mexico -> USA:
    What are the impacts on Mexico?
    • Shortage of economically active people near the border
    • Women left without marriage partners since mainly men leave
    • Old and young dependants left in Mexico which drain the country's resources
    • Only positive is that the immigrants send back almost $6 billion a year back to Mexico
  36. International Migration from Mexico -> USA:
    What are the impacts on the USA?
    • USA spends money on punishing and keeping out illegal immigrants
    • Mexicans are widely discriminated against causing extra problems for the police
    • The migrants work at lower wages meaning the wages of everyone are lowered.
    • However, Mexicans have enriched the culture of the border while also giving a boost to the economy.
  37. North -> South UK Migration:
    Push factors of Northern England?
    • Depleted of natural resources
    • Derelict land from factories being built there in the Industrial Revolution
    • Frontal and relief rainfall common therefore the weather is quite bad.
    • Global shift caused businesses to move to LEDCs causing high unemployment
  38. North -> South UK Migration:
    Pull factors of Southern England?
    • Warmer climate
    • Quaternary industry more common
    • Closer to Europe
    • Oxford and Cambridge in the vicinity meaning higher levels of education
    • More fertile land
  39. North -> South UK Migration:
    Impacts of migration?
    • The regions people leave from become derelict and run-down
    • In some areas only the elderly are left over which means they cant support themselves
    • The areas the migrants go to become over-crowded
  40. North -> South UK Migration:
    What is the net migration of London and what is this process called?
    39,000 people leave London every year overall and this is called counter-urbanisation.
  41. North -> South UK Migration:
    How does the government try to counter-act the migration?
    • EU funds businesses in areas where people have migrated away from.
    • Government gives grants to help businesses in the North, Wales and Scotland.
    • Government funds transport links to encourage commuting so people don't have to fully move away.
  42. Greenwich Millennium Village (GMV): 
    Where is it located?
    South East of the O2 arena on the south bank of the Thames in London.
  43. Greenwich Millennium Village (GMV): 
    How does the GMV help in terms of environmental sustainability?
    • The houses built from cedar wood from sustainable forests along with aluminium which is highly recyclable. 
    • Mixed land is implemented so there is less of a need to drive elsewhere. Schools, shops and houses all together.
    • Public transport easily available with a bus station underneath the GMV and being close to Jubilee underground. Saves private transport CO2 output.
    • Supermarket releases near to no carbon
    • Eco-parks have many trees to reduce net carbon production
    • 2.2km of river walkways input to residents have easy access to the other side of the Thames
  44. Greenwich Millennium Village (GMV): 
    How does the GMV help in terms of social sustainability?
    • A primary school and a clinic are found in the GMV along with other kinds of Soft Infrastructure
    • 10,000 new homes in the GMV
    • Leisure and community centres built for the people of the GMV
  45. Greenwich Millennium Village (GMV): 
    How does the GMV help in terms of economic sustainability?
    • 24,000 new jobs to help with unemployment
    • 150 new shops and restaurants
  46. Greenwich Millennium Village (GMV): 
    Why might other people argue it isn't sustainable?
    It still uses fossil fuels, uses finite resources (such as coal), people still commute elsewhere and people receive goods from abroad.
  47. WaterAid in Mali:
    Why does Mali need help?
    • 50% of the population have no water
    • The water industry there fails to deliver water to the poorer areas frequently
    • 65% of Mali is desert or semi-desert
  48. WaterAid in Mali:
    What does WaterAid do there?
    • They financed the construction of the water network
    • Training local people to operate the water network and maintain it
    • Projects in the slums around the capital, Bamako
    • Helping education programmes so that the communities can help themselves
  49. WaterAid in Mali:
    Where is Mali?
    It's in central Africa bordering Algeria, Nigeria, Senegal and others.
  50. Primary industry, Canadian Prairies:
    Average farm size? What percentage of farmland is in the Prairie Province?
    • 300 hectares
    • 75%
  51. Primary industry, Canadian Prairies:
    Where are the Canadian Prairies?
    On the border of the USA in Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. It is in a central location relative to the East and West coasts.
  52. Primary industry, Canadian Prairies:
    How is the wheat transported to countries abroad?
    • Trains pick up the delivery and transport that to a harbour to be shipped out. 
    • If it isn't shipped out, the wheat is stored at the terminal at the harbour.
  53. Primary industry, Canadian Prairies:
    Why have a farm there?
    Large amounts of flatter land with access to the coast and the other areas of Canada.
  54. Secondary industry, SE Brazil:
    Why is it a good area for Secondary Industry?
    • Raw materials in abundance such as Diamonds, Bauxite, Iron and Gold.
    • Coastal area so access to an international area
    • Large amounts of power from HEP giving 91% of the total electricity used.
    • Good transport links along the coast in form of ships and trains.
  55. Secondary industry, SE Brazil:
    Why is the car industry so successful?
    • There is a pool of skilled and cheap labour that is specialised to factory work. This is due to the government funding 50% of set-up costs to factories in SE Brazil.
    • Close to large sea ports
    • Roads are being constantly built to isolated areas encouraging car use.
    • Multiple raw resources which MNCs can exploit
  56. Secondary industry, SE Brazil:
    Why do MNCs find Brazil favourable?
    • Government funds 50% of set-up costs for factories.
    • Good supply of steel and iron from raw materials and large amount of primary industry.
    • Large demand for cars in the area.
    • Easily accessible international market through the ports.
    • Brazil has had little conflict with other countries.
    • No recent history of labour problems e.g. strikes.
    • Lower health and safety standards.
  57. Tertiary industry, City of London:
    What are the main tertiary activities in the City of London? How much percent of tertiary activities do they equate to?
    The main tertiary activities include: banking, finance and insurance. They cover 75% of the tertiary industry in the City of London.
  58. Tertiary industry, City of London:
    What makes London a global city?
    • 53% of global foreign equity market
    • Approximately 700 foreign companies are in London's stock exchange
    • 75% of the world's top 500 companies in London.
  59. Tertiary industry, City of London:
    How does the London's Economic Development Unit attempt to keep London a global city?
    • Enhance living + working conditions in the CBD
    • Promote London on a world wide basis
    • Ensure an efficient infrastructure and high quality workforce is available.
  60. Tertiary industry, City of London:
    What are back office functions and where are they commonly found?
    • Back office functions are responsible for making sure things are in the right place and are responsible for paperwork/phone calls etc. They have no say in the running of the business.
    • They are commonly found where the main offices aren't so there is more room for the main offices. This includes different regions or even different countries.
  61. Severn and landforms:
    Where is the Severn's source?
    Plynlimon in the Cambrian Mountains of Wales. It is 740m above sea level and receives over 2,500mm a year.
  62. Severn and landforms:
    Name the landforms found at the upper course of the river.
    • 300m high interlocking spurs at Ashes Hollow
    • A waterfall named Blaenhaefren Falls
    • The Ironbridge Gorge
  63. Severn and landforms:
    Name the landform found at the middle course of the river.
    Meanders e.g. the one that encircles Shrewsbury. Erosion on the outside of the bend, deposition on the inside.
  64. Severn and landforms:
    Name the landforms found at the lower course of the river.
    • Floodplains at Shrewsbury and Worcester. The river thins out there so there is lower capactiy and higher flood risk.
    • Estuary at Gloucester. River widens to 2km so flood risk reduced.
    • 15m from high to low water mark meaning the Severn has the second largest tidal waters in the world.
  65. Nike in Vietnam:
    How many factories are there in Vietnam and how many pairs of shoes are made a year? Age/sex of workforce?
    • 34 factories in Vietnam
    • 75 million pairs of shoes made in Vietnam by Nike
    • Majority of workers are women under 25
  66. Nike in Vietnam:
    How does Vietnam benefit from Nike?
    • Nike helps pay for the local infrastructure improvements
    • Higher wages
    • Improves skill base of the working population
    • Attracts other MNCs
  67. Nike in Vietnam:
    How does Nike disadvantage Vietnam?
    • Too much political influence in Vietnam
    • Too much dependancy on a company that could easily move to a different country.
    • The company serves to undermine national culture meaning tradition is lost
  68. Aral Sea:
    Where is the Aral Sea?
    It is located between Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. It has the tributaries of Syr Darya and the Amu Darya.
  69. Aral Sea:
    Why did it start losing water?
    Russia started siphoning off water for their cotton field meaning the main water source for the Aral Sea (up to 75% of its supply) was gone. It started to dry up in the 1960's with a loss of 23m in water level.
  70. Aral Sea:
    From 1960 to 1998, how much water in km3 was lost?
  71. Aral Sea:
    What was the weight of the fish they used to catch in 1960? How much did they catch in 1980? Why?
    They caught 43,430 tons in 1960 but didn't catch anything in 1980. This was due to the salt concentration increasing due to the evaporation of the water. This meant the water was too salty for marine life to survive.
  72. Aral Sea:
    Problems with Russian cotton farming?
    • Consumes large amount of water in furrow irrigation structure
    • Requires more labour due to the lack of financial capability of the farmers
    • Pollutes the nearby water due to the chemicals and fertilisers used on the fields.
  73. Aral Sea:
    As the sea dired up, more dust/sand was made available to the air. What was the result of this?
    • 10 major dust storms occuring annually in the region.
    • Decrease in precipitation (due to less water)
    • Shorter hotter summers and longer colder winters.