Study Guide 9

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  1. Chondrocytes
    • -lie in lacunae
    • -fluid-filled spaces within the matrix
    • -can divide
    • -daughter cells grow further apart as they secrete extra cellular material
  2. fibroblasts
    • type of cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen
    • -most common cells of connective tissue in animals
  3. lacuna
    space in the bone matrix that houses the osteocyte.
  4. osteoclast
    type of bone cell that reabsorbs bone tissue
  5. haversian system
    • -part of the growth of bones
    • -haversian canals: surrounded by concentric lamellae of bone
    • -central haversian canal contains nerve, blood vessels
  6. synarthrosis
    an immovable joint-- head
  7. chondrocranium
    • -cartilaginous thickenings on each side of notochord
    • -parachordal cartilage, prechordal cartilage, olfactory capsule, optic and otic capsules.
    • -enlarge- fuse--ethmoid plate and basal plate (floor of braincase).
  8. nasal capsules
    cartilage developing around nasal cavity
  9. splanchnocranium
    • -arises from neural crest cells, not from somites
    • -skeleton of pharyngeal arches
    • -supports gills
    • -controls shape & size of pharynx
  10. palatoquadrate
    • dorsal component of the mandibular arch, meckels cartilage.
    • -palato-->quadrate bone
  11. palatine process of premaxilla, maxilla, palatine
    all-->extension, shelf small hard palate
  12. dentary
    • changes in the jaw joint
    • -dentary--> squamosal jaw joint
  13. malleus
    • sound transmission
    • -articular-->malleus
  14. chondroblasts
    • originates from a mesenchymal stem cell
    • -forms chondrocytes (cartilage cells)
  15. bone
    • -extensive, hard, mineralized, 
    • -connective tissue
    • -strong, resists compression, rigid
    • -can be reshaped
    • -highly vascularized
    • -calcium phosphate--major mineral
  16. periosteum
    membrane of connective tissue that snugly covers all bone
  17. diaphysis
    -shaft of the long bone
  18. sutures
    fibrous joint that only occurs in the skull.
  19. prechordal and parachordal cartilages
    • beneath the brain
    • -develops around the olfactory and otic capsules.
  20. otic capsules
    separates inner ear from middle ear
  21. pharyngeal arches
    • gill arches
    • -comparable to gills in fish
  22. mandibular cartilage
    A cartilaginous bar in the embryonic mandibular arch whose proximal end becomes ossified to form the malleus
  23. articular
    Of or relating to a joint or joints
  24. incus
    • bone in the middle ear
    • -quadrate--> incus
  25. collagen
    the major insoluble fibrous protein in the extracellular matrix and in connective tissue
  26. cartilage
    a flexible connective tissue found in many areas in the bodies of humans and other animals, including the joints between bones
  27. canaliculi
    microscopic canals between the lacunae of ossified bone
  28. perichondrium
    layer of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the cartilage of developing bone
  29. endochondral bone
    involves the replacement of a cartilage model by bone
  30. epiphysis
    rounded end of a long bone, at its joint with adjacent bone(s) .
  31. symphases
    are united by flattened discs of fibrocartilage as found between adjacent pubic bones and between the bodies of adjacent vertebre and sernebrae.
  32. optic capsules
    pair of cartilaginous capsules that develop around the eyes of elasmobranch fishes and of embryos of higher vertebrates
  33. mandibular arch
    The first branchial arch
  34. hyomandibula
    a bone or cartilage derived from the hyomandibular arch
  35. quadrate
    forms the incus
  36. stapes
    sound transmission
  37. elastin fibers
    bundles of proteins (elastin) found in extracellular matrix of connective tissue and produced by fibroblasts and smooth muscle
  38. osteocyte
    cell that lies within the substance of fully formed bone. It occupies a small chamber called a lacuna
  39. osteoblast
    large cell responsible for the synthesis and mineralization of bone during both initial bone formation and later bone remodeling
  40. dermal bone
    A type of bone that ossifies directly from membrane without a cartilaginous predecessor
  41. osteon
    is the fundamental functional unit of much compact bone
  42. arthroses
    An articulation or a joint between bones
  43. diarthroses
    Any of several types of bone articulation permitting free motion in a joint, as that of the shoulder or hip.
  44. trabeculae
    meshwork of interconnecting sections of a bone. It gives the spongelike appearance of a cancellous bone
  45. hyoid arch
    greatly modified to become a single, movable, bony covering for the whole gill chamber—the operculum.
  46. dermatocranium
    portion of the skull which develops from dermal bone. Thedermatocranial regions include the dermal bones of the cranial roof,
  47. secondary palate
    anatomical structure that divides the nasal cavity from the oral cavity in many vertebrates
  48. squamosal
    bone of the head of higher vertebrates. It is the principal component of the cheek region in the skull, lying below the temporal series
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Study Guide 9
2014-04-12 18:48:05

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