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What is Lymphangitis , Lymphadenitis , and Lymphedema ?
What could happen if the lymphnodes of the axillary are removed ?
-Secondary inflammation of lymphatic vessels and nodes.This happens when involved with the metastasis of cancer.
- Swelling of the arm can occur
Explain why the Central Nervous system cannot regenerate ?
-Proximal stumps try to regenerate but the Astrocytes block the progression of the new nerves.
How is regeneration in the Peripheral Nerves possible ?
-The nerves distal to the damaged area have the soma still intact so can regenerate. The new axons can follow the tract back to the site.
What are tension lines and how do you utilize them to in order to minimize scarring and keloids.
-Tension lines keep the skin taut and cuts should be made parallel to them in order to minimize the scarring . This happens they are can easily heal.
How are stretch marks created ?
This is when the elastic and collagen fibers undergo intensified stress and the tissue become distended.
Explain 1st , 2nd , and 3rd degree burns ? which is more severe the amount of body surface burned or the degree of the burn ?
1st - is superficial epidermis -regrowth
2nd- epidermis and dermis -regrowth
3rd - epidermis and dermis -growth
Having more surface of the body is more severe
What is Heterotopic Bones ?
These are where bones form soft tissue where it is not normally present due to muscle strain or constant having small hemorrhagic bloody areas.
Calcification and eventual ossification
How are bones adaptable ?
-This is because they are living organs
when they are used they undergo hypertrophy and when they are not used they atrophy.
Discuss Bone trauma and repair function ?
The damages bone is surrounded by fibroblasts that secret collagen and other tissue that form as a connection between the broken portions.
What is Osteoporosis ?
It is the degeneration of bone due to old age.
What are accessory bones ?
Additional ossification centers appear and fail to fuse with the main bone. The extra bone is a missing part of the original bone.
How is bone age determined ? Do bones fuse 1 to 2 years quicker in boys or girls ?
- -sites of ossification
- 1-the appearance of calcified material in the
- diaphysis and epiphyses
- 2-loss of dark lines in the epiphysial plate.
How do you tell the difference between a displaced epiphysial plate and fractured bone ?
An epiphysial plate will be smooth on the edges and the fractured bone will have sharp edges and shards
What is avascular Necrosis ?
This is when a bone loses its blood supply.
What is degenerative joint disease and osteoarthritis ?
It is when the joints of the body wear down due to usage and age.
What is Muscle testing for ?
It is usually utilized to diagnose nerve injuries.
What is electromyography ?
it is when electrical stimulation is used to test muscle nerves.
How can muscular atrophy take place ?
It can happen when a lesion is present on a nerve or when a muscle is not utilized for a extened period of time.
What is compensatory hypertrophy and a Myocardial Infarction?
Compensatory Hypertrophy - muscles get thicker due to demand.
Myocardial Infarction - it is scar tissue that develops after a stroke. This tissue can block
Explain anastomoses , Collateral Circulation , Terminal (End) Arteries ?
The anastomoses of arteries allow for the main artery to be supplemented if it is blocked. Collateral circulation is provided by anastomoses. Terminal end arteries do not have anastomoses.
Explain areteriosclerosis :Ischemia and Infarcation ? What is atheroslcerosis ?
Arteriosclerosis is loss of elasticity and the thickening of the arterial walls. Artherosclerosis is the build of fat in the arteries with calcium. These can cause an infarction and ischemia
What are varicose veins ?
This is where veins receive an obsessive amount of pressure and began to become swollen and twisted.
What is a Back sprain and strain ?
It is an injury to the ligamentous tissue, no dislocation or fracture.
What happens when the Serratus anterior is paralyzed ?
The long thoracic nerve supplies the Serratus anterior so it is not functioning. Then it causes a winged scapula (posterior protrusion). The arm can not be abducted above the horizontal position.
What is venipuncture ? What is the median cubital vein for ? The dorsal venous network cephalic , and basilic vein are used for ? The cubital veins are a site for ?
-It is when superficial veins are used for drawing blood or injecting a solution.
Median cubital - venipuncture
Dorsal venous network cephalic , and basilic vein - intravenous feeding
Cubital veins - cardiac catheters
What is the result of axillary nerve damage ?
-Atrophy of the deltoid.
Injury to what muscle is the likely cause of damage to the rotator cuff ? what joint is likely affected ?
The supraspinatus is likely the cause and the glenohumeral joint is likely affected.
If there is bleeding in the arm where should compression be placed ? It a more proximal region is needed ?
-the third portion of the Axillary artery
- 1st rib at the meeting point of the clavicle and sternocleidomastoid.
Discuss injury to the Axillary vein ?
It is very severe being that it is large and superficial. It is is injured it can cause profuse bleeding or air emboli.
What is the most common site for metastases of breast cancer ?
Axillary lymph nodes
What are the variations of the brachial plexus ? Discuss Prefixed and postfixed..
- Prefixed - C4 to C8
- Postfixed - C6 to T2
Variations can occur in the trunk , cords, divisions , combination of branches in relation to the axillary and scalene muscles.
In discussing the brachial plexus how are superior injuries and inferior injuries made ?
- Superior - Neck and shoulder
- Inferior - arm over abducted
If a patients arm needs to be surgically worked upon , how can you anesthetize it instead of using a general anesthesia ?
Local anesthetic to the Brachial plexus
What are signs to a fracture to the clavicle ?
The junction of the lateral and middle thirds usually fractures and the SCM elevates this portion and the trapezius can't hold up the shoulder so it drops
What is the first long bone to undergo ossification ?
What is the usual result of scapular injury ?
Severe trauma like a car accident , usually ribs are broken as well.
There is usually little treatment since both sides have muscle . The acromion is usually protruding out of the skin
Why can a fractures to the humerus be very serious ? Discuss the nerves associated with the breaks -
Distal humerus -
- Surgical Neck - axillary nerve
- Radial groove - radial nerve
- Distal humerus - median nerve
- Medial Epicondyle - ulnar nerve
What is the most common fracture of the forearm ?
What portion of the hand is usually fractured ?
How is biceps tendinitis caused ?
It is the tendon moving back and forth across the tubercular sulcus of the humerus during rigorous movements.
How is the popeye deformity caused ?
It is caused by the the rupture of the tendon from tendinitis of the biceps tendon.
What is the Biciptial myotatic relfex testing ?
Integrity of the Musculocutaneous nerve.
What muscles will not function if the thoracodorsal nerve is damaged ?
coracobrachialis , biceps , brachialis
What happens when the radial nerve is severed superior to the branches ?
triceps , brachioradialis , supinator , extensor muscles , wrist and fingers
What happens when the brachial artery is lacerated ?
Ischemia can set in and the muscles can shorten permanently .
Where should you compress the brachial artery ?
the middle of the arm , after it has been moved laterally.
What is the first and second spurt during the blood pressure check using a sphygmomanometer ?
- 1st -Systolic
- 2nd- Diastolic
How does one test the Flexor Digitorum , Flexor Superficialis ,and the flexor Digitorum profundus ?
You hold the finger in place you want to test.
What is a synovial cyst ?
is swelling of clear mucinous fluid.
What is mallet or distal finger ?
It is when the the finger is jammed or it is hyperflexed.
What is Elbow tendinitis or Lateral Epicondylitis ?
When the superficial extensor muscles of the forearm are used too much.
How is the rotator cuff usually injured ?
too much use of the supraspinatus tendon
What joints and ligaments are torn when there is a Dislocation of the Acromioclavicular joint ?
- Coracoclavicular ligmants
Dislocation of Glenohumeral Joint ?
Most happen from the downard (inferior ) force and some say it usually come from the behind (anteriorly)
Axillary nerve may be torn
Calcific Supraspinatus Tendinitis ?
calcification make moving the arm painful (painful syndrome arc)
Adhesive Capsulitis of Glenohumeral Joint ?